Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
This report gives a summary of the major developments achieved in marine engineering technology in Japan and abroad in 1996, prepared by the Editors Committee of MESJ based on the manuscripts written by the chairmen and members of the research committees.
Each section gives an objective summary of researches, indicates the data showing the present technical level and improvements in production and performance of marine equipments, and introduces new products worthy of speciaI attention.
In writing these articles, the authors specially intended to make only a very brief statement conceming advances in the field of fundamental engineering, to make reference as much as possible to the previously published joumals of the related societies for research papers and technical informations, and to restrict the introduction of individual products and achievements only to the most representative ones.
The authors express their deep gratitude to the companies for providing them with informations required in compiling this summary.
1. General, 2. DieseI Engines, 3. Steam Turbines, 4. Gas Turbines and Turbochargers, 5. Boilers, 6. Shafting System,7. Auxiliary Machinery and Outfitting works, 8. Deck Machinery,9. Fuels and Lubricating Oils, 10. Nuclear Ships, 1 1. Automatic Contro1, 12. Electronics Techno1ogy, 13. Electrical Equipment and System, 14. Ocean Engineering Machnery and Offshore Structures
From the middle of 1 996 depreciation of Japanese yen made mind of people concemed with marine indus-try in Japan to be slightly relieved. But competition on each project is still so hard that all participants are always fighting to cut their costs down to minimum.
Meanwhile policy of"Safety of life at sea" and "Preservation of the marine environment" is globally promoted in the marine field. The market still claims the energy efficient vessel and automaticalIy operated vessel but the market aIso makes more iInportant for the vessel to be "clean and safe" than any other policies. In our societies the study for reduction of the exhaust gas emission has been the main topics in the last two-three years. These circumstances of technical deveIopment in conjunction with global & regional regulation should be positively acknowledged for evolution of quality of the vessel.
1.2 New building Results1)
The self-propelled ships of l00 gross tonnage (GT) or above (excluding wooden ships) built in the world in 1996 are l,450 ships in number and about 24,187,000 GT in total. The number of ships increased by about 157o and GT increased by about 197o com-
pared with those in l995. The average GT per ship increased by about 37o compared with those in 1995.
Japan ranked first in the world with both 564 ships and about l0,049,000 GT and the ratio of Japanese new building results in the world accounts for about 397o iri the number of ships and about 427o in GT. Korea ranked second with both 157 ships and about 6,680,000 GT. The ratio of both Japanese and Korean new building results in the world accounts for 507c in the number of ships and 697c in GT. The third and fol1owing ranks were Germany, China, Italy, Taiwan,Poland and Spain.
1.3 New buildings by Kindl)
In new buildings by kind of l00 GT or above in the world in 1996 (excluding wooden ships), bulk carries were about 8,494,000 GT which accounts for about 357c of the total GT. Oi l tankers were about 4,362,000 GT which accounts for about 187o of the total GT. rILe main feature is container ships built about 6,023,000 GT which accounts for about 257o of the total GT.
Liquefied gas carrier were about 4.07o, general cargo ships were 3.67o, chemical ships were 2.87o of the total GT.
1.4 Order Results2)
The order results in Japan in 1996 was 401 ships
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and l0,637,000 GT on the Ministry of Transport ship-building permission base (ships of 2,500 GT or above or of 90m or above in length). The results account for 1157o in the numberof ships and l057o in GTcompared with the results in 1995. Domestic ships decreased by about 677o resulting in 250,000 GT, and exported ships increased by about 10Vo resulting in l0,387,000 GT,compared with those in 1995. Breakdown by kind of ships shows that cargo ships increased by 37o resu1ting in 8,209,000 GT and oil tankers increased by l07o resu1ting in 2,343,000 GT.
1.5.1 L.P.G. ship
( 1 ) The 39,270 cubic meter multipurpose L.P.G. ship
( 1 ) The 39,270 cubic meter multipurpose L.P.G. ship "ANT\VERPEN VENTURE" was compIeted and delivered to Cedonia Shipping Ltd. In November 1996 at Ariake Shipyard of Hitachi Zosen Corpo-ration. The vessel is fully refrigerated L.P.G. ship and has three independent prismatic cargo tanks which are alIowed to load L.P.G. (propane, bu-tane), anhydrous ammonia, VCM, propylene,Butylenes, Butadiene.
The vessel is directly propelled by one set of two-stroke cycle s1ow speed diesel engine.
(2) The 84,269 cubic meter L.P.G. ship "FLANDERS
TENACITY" was completed and delivered to United Power Shipping Ltd. In May 1996 at Sakaide Shipyard in Kawasaki Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.This ship is fully refrigerated L.P.G. ship which is one of the biggest size LPG ships in these days.The cargo containment is four independent pris-matic tanks which are allowed to load propane,butane, anhydrous ammonia.
The main propulsion is one set of two-stroke cycle slow speed diesel engine.
1.5.2 RO-RO ship
The RO-RO ship "CELESTINE" was completed and delivered to Oceanarrow Ltd. In October 1996 at Sakaide Shipyard in Kawasaki Heavy Industries Co.,Ltd. This ship consists of three rows of trailer deck and three rows of car deck on which 156 trailers and 654 cars are available on board respectively.
The ships equips twin main engines, twin contro1-lable pitch propellers, twin rudders and two sets of bow thrusters to achieve high maneuverability.
1.5.3 High speed ferry
(1) Two high speed large ferries, "SUZURAN" and
and "SUISEN", for Shin Nihonkai Ferry Co., Ltd.were completed and simultaneously delivered in May 1996 at Aioi Shipyard of Ishikawajima Harima
Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. These ships attained 3 1.3 knots during sea trial which is the highest speed for mono-hull type large & 1ong distance ferries in the world. They are placed in service on the Turuga-Otaru route to trave1 550 miles a day with carrying 507 passengers and 1 30 1 2 m -trail-ers.
The main propulsion is tWin contro1lable pitch propellers driven by two sets of medium speed main diesel engine specially developed for this application to produce 23,800 kw by each.
The high speed ferry, "UNICORN", for Higashi Nippon Ferry Co., Ltd. was launched in January 1997 at Shimonoseki Shipyard of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. rILe ship is designed to cruise at 35 knots in normal services and expected to mark over 40 knots at maximum speed which will be the highest speed for mono-hull type large ferries. The ship will be put into shuttle service of about 155 km distance between Aomori and Hakodate within 2 hours with carrying 423 pas-sengers and 1 06 cars.
The main propulsion is four sets of water jet respectively driven by the one set of the high speed diesel engine.
Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.announced to win an order of the high speed ferry from Kumamoto Ferry Co., which is firstly ap-plied their original SSTH (Super Slender Twin Hull) concept to the car ferry. The ship will be expected to reduce cruising time by haIf of exist-ing one hour between Kumamoto and Shimabara.The ship will carry 430 passengers and 51 cars in speed of 3O knots.
1.5.4 Autonomous underwater vehicle
The Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) "R-l ROBOT" was jointly developed by University of Tokyo and Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co.,Ltd. The autonomous trial was successfu1ly carried out in August 1996 to travel underwater about 20 km distance off Wakayama coast.
The vehicle is powered by the CCDE (C1osed Cycle Diesel Engine) system which is specially devel-oped for the vehicle's main propulsive drive. This vehicle can be widely utilized for underwater inspec-tlon.
1.5.5 Special type ice breaking vessel in the floe
The special type ice breaking vessel "GARINKO-GO 2" was completed and delivered to Okhotsk Kankou Kisen in February 1997 at Yamanishi Shipyard co1-laborated with Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co.,
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86 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
Ltd. This ship efficiently progresses on the floe by a pair of special ice breaking rotor with Archimedian screw which are driven by the hydraulic motor powered by the high speed diesel engine.
( 1) The Marine Engineering Society in Japan (MESJ)
celebrated the 30th anniversary. rILe main events were Ceremony, Special talks, Special issue of 30 years history and Special issue of the summary of indexes of ten-years of Journal of the Marine Engineering in Japan.
(2) The intemational marine exhibition ("SEA JA-
PAN '96") was held in Japan in March 1996. 394 companies and l organization from tota127 coun-tries exhibited and successfully let more than 50,000 visitors enjoyed.
(3) The Society of Naval Architects of Japan selected
and commended the super high speed ship Techno Super Liner (TSL) "HISHO", built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Co., Ltd. and Mitsui Engineer-ing & Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. as "Ship of the year '95".
1) Lloyd's Register of Shipping, Annual Summary
of Merchant Ships completed 1996.
2) Maritime Techno1ogy and Safety Bureau, Minis-
try of Transport, Annual summary of the Issue of Ship Construction Permits 1996.
2. Diesel Engines
2.1 Tren d in the World
According to the Annual Analysis by the maga-zine The Motor Ship (Issue of July, 1996), the ship-building output in the world in 1995 is 884 in number,and increased by l06 compared with 778 ships in the previous year, i.e., by about 147o.
The shipbuilding output is also increased from 2,829 KDWT to 3,450 KDWT by 227o. Japan pro-duced over 407c of the world total both in the number of ships and the output. (Tables 2.1- l to 2.1-4).
Tab1es 2.1-5 and 6 show the annual transition from 1991 to 1995 according to the magazine, and the
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predominance of Japan and Korea is not changed for these 5 years, overwhelmingly occupying 747o of the world production. In the third and subsequent posi-tions, Germany, China, Denmark, etc. are competing,
and more than 807o of the rest of the world production is shared by the Asian area including China, Taiwan,and S ingapore.
In particular, Korea recorded about 507c ship-
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88 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
building output of Japan in 1994, but in 1995, Korea recorded about 687o that of Japan, which shows the rapid increase. The number of the newly built ships in the world has been increasing for these several years.The trend is analyzed to be attributable to the effect of renewal of old tankers and the OECD effect, which is unexpectedly large.
From the aspect of the engine manufacturing as shown in Tables 2.1-3 - 2.1-5, the low-speed engines were greatly increased from 53 14 MW in 1994 to 7320 MW, and the total manufacture of the large dieseI engines for marine use in the world was increased from 6632 MW to 8952 MW. In the production in terms of the output, 807c of the world total were manufactured by MAN B&W and Su1zer, and 967o of the world total production were manufactured by the top five compa-nies including Mitsubishi, Wartsila, and Mak. In the medium speed engine, Su1zer keeps the highest rank,but Wartsila, Mak, MAN B & W are moving up and the difference becomes smaller. However, the newly built ships are oriented to the engines of larger output and lower speed, and the medium-speed engine is forced to the severe competition. Mitsubishi, Hanshin Diesel Works, Akasaka Diesels, Daihatsu Diesel, Yanmar Diesel Engines, Makita Corporation, Niigata Engi-neering are listed up as the manufacturers in Japan.
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2.2 Domestic Trend by Statistics of Nippon Kaiji
According to the statistics by Nippon Ka(ji Kyokai,365 newly-built ships were registered with NK class in 1996, showing the same level as 363 ships in 1995.
The number of the newly-built ships registered with NK class has been increased since in 1992 at the annual rate of increase of 107o or more, but the number in 1996 shows that the increase is settled for the time being.
The total horse power of the diesel engine of 2-strokes and 4-strokes installed on these newly-built ships was 2,828,591 PS compared with 3,287, 108 PS in 1995, showing the drop of about 1 47o. The trend was largely attributable to the fact that no larger engines over 40,000 PS were installed while the output of the low-speed 2-cycle engines has been increased.
2.3 Studies at Ship Research Institute
Emission control from ships by IMO will be sched-uled to come into force in 2000, and it is urgently requested to establish the measures to reduce the quan-tity of the air po11utant including NOx and SOx. The Engine Power Department of Ship Research Institute has been challenging the study on the evaluation of the harmful exhaust gas to be discharged from the marine engines and its control method, and the fo11owing studies were made in 1996.
( 1) A study on water emulsion fuel operation
In order to understand the problems associated with the use of the water emu1sion fuel which is expected as the future NOx reducing method, the NOx concentration in the exhaust gas and the ratio of generation of particulates by changing the com-bination of the engine load factor, the kind of fuel oil, and the water addition ratio making use of the 4-strokes diesel engine for the experiment. As a result, the necessity to establish the water addition ratio of the water emulsion fuel according to the operational condition such as the engine load factor from the viewpoint of the comprehensive reduction of the harmful exhaust gas is recog-nized.
Examples of change in the NOx concentration and particulate discharge ratio when the water addition ratio and the engine load factor are changed are illustrated in Fig. 2.3-l and Fig. 2.3-2.
The water em ulsion fuel was applied to a generator engine on board a real ship based on the joint study with Institute for Sea Training of the Ministry of Transport, and the studies on various operational problems are started.
(2) A study on change in NOx generation ratio by the
f]uctuation of engine loads
In order to understand the effect on the NOx generation ratio associated with the fluctuation of
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90 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
the sea states in the operationaI condition of the ships, the operational data of the engines and the composition of the prescribed exhaust gas to vari-ous fluctuation of the shaft torque were continu-ously measured making common use of the test engine and the load fluctuating device. As a result,the change in the NOx generation ratio due to the fluctuation of the shaft torque was checked, and it is considered that the NOx generation ratio in the periodical 1oad fluctuation is equivalent to that in the static load condition corresponding on the average.
(3) A study on evaluation of harmful exhaust gas from
ships and examination on the trend
Examination on the trend related to the secular change on the amount of NOx discharged from ships was continued based on the joint study with the Maritime Safety Agency, and the study on the difference of the NOx discharge ratio between the engines on the shore and that from the marine engines on the sea was started based on the joint study with Institute for Sea Training.
2.4 Development and Production by Domestic
2.4.1 Akasaka Diesels IJimited
( ] ) New model developed in 1996
Development of Low-NOx Engine:
A marine engine to satisfy the first draft regula-tions on the nitrogen oxide (NOx) to be discharged from ships which are now discussed at IM0 (Inter-national Maritime 0rganization) was developed,and delivered in December, 1996.
rILis engine is originally the E28BFD Engine, and its fuel injection system and fuel system were improved so that the NOx emission was beloW the regulated value, and was employed on board as the main engine for the fisheries training ship prior to the imp1ementation of the regulations.
Fig. 2.4.1-1 shows the general view of the engine,and TabIe 2.4.1- 1 shows the main particulars of the engine.
Differences between this engine and the conven-tional type engine include the specifications of the
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fuel injection valve nozzle, the fuel cam profi1e,the compression ratio, and the specifications of the tu rbocharger.
Fig. 2.4.1-2 shows the results of NOx measure-ment. The NOx emission is 9.83 g/kwh for this engine while it is 13.26 g/kwh for the regulated value (draft), realizing the emission below the regulated value (draft).
(2) Engines manufactured in 1996
2.4.3 Daihatsu Diesel Mfg. Co., Ltd.( 1 ) New model developed in 1996
[ 1] Development of 6DK-26 Diesel Engine
DK-26 is the intermediate model of DK-28, and the third model of the DK series which were developed and marketed this year. It was devel-oped with the development concept of"Friendly to human and earth", aiming at the design targets of l) reliability and durability, 2) reduction of maintenance cost, 3) countermeasures for prob-lems of global environment, 4) economy, and 5) weight reduction and miniaturization.
Table 2.4.3-1 shows the main particulars, and Fig.2.4.3-1 shows the photo of the general view re-spectively, and this engine presents the economi-cal engine speed and the output not only for the marine generator engines but also for the main engines for ferries, pushers, and tug boats, and in addition, for general cargo boats.
The engine is designed in accordance with the affordable design standards taking into consider-ation the application, and has the sufficient strength and durability. The air-intake pipe, the LO main pipe, the cooling water main pipe, etc. are inte-grated with the frame structure, realizing the silent engine with smal1 vibration and noise level. The crank shaft is of RR-forged high grade carbon steel, and the overhaul-free operation for a long time is enabled through the combination with the reliable aluminum metal. The cylinder head is made of compacted vermicular graphite cast iron
which is high in the mechanical strength and excellent in the heat transfer to realize a structure of excellent cooling efficiency, and firmly tight-ened by four head bolts by a hydraulic too1. The connecting rod is of the structure which is horizon-tally split into 3 parts, and capable of securing the reliability and easy in maintenance.
The fuel injection system is constantly capable of 150 MPa service pressure by emp1oying the fuel injection pump which is of the tappet roIler type to realize the fuel injection in a short time, and of the plunger barrel of c1osed type, and the optirllum injection characteristic is kept by the appropriate FO cam shape, and the excellent atomizing condi-tion can be obtained. The turbocharger of cooling-free and highly efficient radial type is employed,and the exhaust gas energy is effectively collected by matching the exhaust pipe system consisting one pipe with the compressor of high pressure ratio. The conflicting conditions of low fuel con-sumption and low NO\ can be satisfied by the injection system and the air intake and exhaust system. As a matter of course, the NOx emission ratio passes the regulated value of 9.4 g/kw.h by the IM0 (Intemational Maritime 0rganization).
 A series of generator diesel engines through in-
crease of cylinder number
The 6-cylinder generator diesel engines for marine use have been extensively employed, and the out-
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92 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
put range has been increased by the cylinder bore.However, from the viewpoint of the regulation and energy saving of the exhaust gas, it takes time and cost to develop one model. In order to increase the output by the same cylinder bore, the output range is increased by increasing the number of cylinders,without being limited to the 6-cylinder engine.Daihatsu has been increasing the cylinder number and presented the engines of DK-20 series by adding 8-cylinder and 5-cylinder engines to the engine of 6DK-20. The output range from 400 kw /720 min-l to 1 100 kw/900mm-1 can be covered by the same cylinder bore of 20O mmQ). The manu-facturer can promote his standardization by the same cylinder bore system, and the ship owners can perform the unilateraI control of the mainte-nance and parts stock, resuIting in a large number of advantages together with large economic effect.The 3-cylinder engine is added to the series so as to expand the output range up to 350 kW/900 miml and development was started targeting the product on the market by 1997. Though there are some issues to be so1ved in reducing the cylinder num-ber, such as the vibration, the vibration damping techno1ogy and the vibro-isolating support tech-no1ogy can be realized by the vibration analysis together with the experiences of the 5-cylinder engines. The details will be announced at the first
 Engine system of observation ship "MIRAI" (ex-
"MIRAI" of Marine Science and Technology Cen-ter is referred to as the mobile floating laboratory.The total shop test of thd main engine and the generator dieseI engine for "MIRAI" was carried out in February, 1996, and the engines were deliv-ered. The engine system of the ship consists of the main engine plant to drive the contro1lable pitch propeller which is of 4-engine and 2-shaft system,and whose totaI output is 7352 kW ( 1838 kW/720 min-1 x 4), 2 sets of main generator diesel engines and one set of auxiliary generator diesel engine. In addition, the main engine is provided with a shaft generator (880 kW x 2) on the starboard and port side respectiVely, and tota1 five generators, i.e., 2 sets of main generator diesel engines ( 1760 kW x 2), 1 set of auxiIiary generator diesel engine (880 kW), and the shaft generators, are available with the total output of the generators of 6160 kW.They are all capable of the parallel operation and other operations of various pattern according to the operational condition of the main engine and the power loads.
Because the ship is an oceanographic observation ship, a large number of sonars and special instru-ments are on board, and the ship is designed
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paying special attention to the vibration and noise contro1. The main engine and the generator en-gines are of the independent horizontal double vibro-isolating system, and the reduction gear is also of the horizontal vibro-isolating system to suppress transmission of the vibration and noise to the hul1 structure as much as possible. The vibro-isolating unit is made of conical vibro-isolating rubber, and the frequency of resonance can be designed low through the double vibro-isolating system though the spring constant is higher com-pared with that of the diagonal vibro-isolating system. In this system, the vibration level in passing the frequency of resonance when the en-gine is started is low, and the engine oscillation is reduced in the tuming.
Because the main engine plant is of the multiple engine type, various kinds of operation pattem can be, selected in the speciaI navigation for the obser-vation ship, and the stable operation can be real-ized.
The ship is provided with the electric propulsion system on the intermediate propeller shaft, and the various power loads can be coped with by the multiple function of the generators. Every engine passed the criteria (NOx exhaust gas emission ratio) of the exhaust gas by IM0.
The engine system configuration is shown in Fig.2.4.3-21 for reference.
(2) Annual results of manufacture
The results of manufacture in 1995 (over l00 PS) are as follows.
Main englne Number (sets) 22 Output (PS) 40,000 (KW) 29,420
320 276,191 203,138
379 316,191 232,558
2.4.4 Diesel United, Ltd.
( 1 ) New Model developed in 1996
DU Su1zer RTA48T Engine
The first model of the RTA48T type engine among the DU-Su1zer RTA48T type and RTA58T type engines which are on the development as the main engine for bulk carriers of handy type, handy MAX type, PANAMAX type, oil tankers of Aframax type, and chip carriers, was completed in July, 1996, the tests for checking the reliability and various performances and the test for reducing the NOx were carried out for about 2 months to find that the test results were same as the designed value, and the engine was delivered to the cus- tomeI..
The engine particulars of the RTA48T type engine which is intended for the main engine most suit-able for the market demands, were determined with the fo11owing development targets based on the experiences of the conventional RTA series englne.
1) Appropriate output and speed for the ship plan 2) Low fuel consumption by super-1ong stroke and improvement of propeller efficiency 3) High reliability
4) Miniaturized and compact outer dimensions 5) Improvement of maintainability
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94 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
6) Simplification ofinstallation and outfitting
Table 2.4.4-1 shows the main particulars of the RTA48T engine, Fig. 2.4.4-1 shows the engine section, and Photo 2.4.4- 1 shows the general view.
(2) Annual results of manufacture in 1996
The results of manufacture of the main engines for marine use in 1996 are as fol1ows.
Annual results of manufacture:
2.4.5 Niigata Engineering Co., Ltd.1.l Development of New Model
The engine was developed for the engine whose maximum output exceeds 5000 PS with the cylin-der bore of 205 mm, targeting the output of one rank upward of the V16FX type engine having experiences with the main engine for high-speed ships such as high-speed passenger boats and high-speed car fenies.
Characteristics of the engine are large output, high performance,light weight, compact structure, high reliability and durability, simple structure, and easy maintainability. Table 2.4.5-1 shows the
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main particulars, and Fig. 2.4.5-1 shows the photo of the engine .
(2) Turbocharger of NR/S series type
Based on the experiences with the NWR series, the cooling-free radial turbine turbocharger of NR/S type is manufactured and marketed through in-crease in the high pressure ratio, high efficiency,expansion of the range of applicable capacity,improvement of the service life of bearings, and emp1oyment of the mi xed flow turbine. Table 2.4.5-2 shows the main particulars, Fig. 2.4.5-2 shows the assembly section, and Fig. 2.4.5-3 shows the capacity range of the turbocharger.
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96 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
1.2 Annual results of manufacture
Table 3.4.5-3 shows the number of the main en-gines, auxiliary engines, turbochargers,elastic cou-plings, Z-type propulsion systems, and waterjet propulsion systems manufactured in 1996, and the total output of the main engines and auxiliary englnes.
2.4.6 NKK Corporation ( 1) New Mode1
1 ) 18PC4-2B type engine
The 18PC4-2B type reversible engine whose manufacture was started in 1995 was com-pleted. The general view of the engine is shown in Photo 2.4.6- 1. The engine was installed as the main engine for two high-speed RO-RO ships now under operation.
2) 18PC2-6V type vibro-isolating support type
The engine was emp1oyed as the main engine for the passenger-cargo ship, and the vibro-isolating support system was emp1oyed, in par-ticular, for the purpose of environmental im-provement of the accommodation. The main particulars are shown in Table 2.4.6-1. The engine is supported by 18 rubbers of specia1
structure, and the main engine is coupled with the reduction gear by the coupling capable of absorbing the displacement in the axial direc-tion. The engine section is shown in Fig. 2.4.6- 1.rILe damping effect of 30-40 dB is obtained by the vibration isolating rubber from the results of the shop test and the on-board test, contributing to the improvement of the habitability.
(2) Annual results of manufacture
Ten NKK-SEMT-PIELSTICK engines for ship propulsion were manufactured in 1996 by NKK,totaling 194, 160 PS.
2.4.7 The Hanshin Diesel Works, Ltd.( 1) New Model developed in 1996
The LH38L type engine of 3000 PS was devel-oped. The line-up of the LHL series engines from 1600 PS to 4500 PS is completed.
The LHL38L type engine is designed mainly for improvement of the reliability and durability, and facilitation of the maintenance and examination,and Table 2.4.7-1 shows the main particulars, and Fig. 2.4.7-1 shows the engine assembly.
The major characteristics are as fo11ows.
1) The cyIinders, the frames, and the engine bed
are tightened by the bolts (hydraulically tight-ened), and the air intake pipe and the main pipe of cooling water inlet are integrated with the cylinders made of cast iron.
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The cylinder liner is made of special cast iron and treated by Tufftride method to improve the wear resistance, and the bore cooling is per-formed to improve the rigidity and the cooling effect and to improve the durability.
The cam bearing, the LO piping of the guide
cylinder for air intake and exhaust, and fuel, and the drain piping for the fuel pump are pipeless to simplify the piping.
4) The air intake/exhaust vaIve is of vaIve box type
easy in maintenance and examination, and each air intake and exhaust valve, i.e., two-valve system is employed on one cylinder.
Five sets of the engines were delivered after devel-opment.
(2) Annual results of manufacture
* Number of manufacture:
126 sets (all for main engines)
* Total horsepower of manufactured engines:
2.4.8 Hitachi Zosen Corporation ( 1 ) Engine deveIoped in 1996
The 8ZAL40S engine with the specifications for marine use was compIeted, which is medium speed engine by Hitachi-Su1zer. Table 2.4.8-I shows the main particulars, and Fig.2.4.8-1 shows the gen-cral view of the engine with perfect fire-proof rlleEtsLlre s.
rILe engine waS mounted on the RO-RO ShiP 0f 2-engine and 2-shaft type, its fuel consumption is low, the reliability is high, and the low vibration and noise level is realized.
(2) Annual results of manufacture
* Low speed diesel engine:
50 sets 645,120 BHP
* Medium specd diesel engine:
2 sets 14,600 BHP
(3) Production facilities and production system
A new engine manufacturing shop was built in the site of Ariake Plant, and the engine manufacturing system integrating the engines for ship and land use will be started in July, 1997. A new plano miller is introduced and the crane capacity is increased up to 450 tons to expand the limit of the integrated delivery.
98 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
2.4.9 Makita Corporation
( 1 ) Development of New Mode1
Though no new model was developed, the test was carried out with the low speed 4-cycle engine (cylinder bore: 310 mm, piston stroke: 600 mm,mean effective pressure: 2O.7 kgf/cm2, number of cylinders: 6, engine speed: 320 rpm, and output: 2000 PS) to pass the NOx regulated value for the marine engines under discussion by IMO. The test was carried out in which the fuel injection timing delay and the maximum cylinder pressure are corrected by the compression ratio, and the in-crease of the fuel consunlption is suppressed to 0c/o, and the NOx generation concentration was reduced by 25 q;).
(2) Annual results of nlanufacture
]-be annual results oflTlanufacture in 1996 are as 1Y)11ows.
* Main cngine for marine use:
2-cycle engine 34 sets 172,905 PS
2.4.10 Matsui lron Works Co.,Ltd.( 1) Developlnent of New Mode1
1 . En ginc developcd in 1 996
No diesel engines for marine use were newly developed in 1996.
2. The annual results of the manufacture are as fo1-
* Number of total manufactured engines in 1996:
* Total output: 26,600 PS
2.4.11 Mitsui Engineering & Shipping Co., Ltd.( 1 ) Engine developed in 1996
The Mitsui 6ADD30V engine, which is the high output engine with the output ratio in the top level in the world among the 4-cycle medium speed engines (cylinder bore:300 mm, piston stroke: 480 mnl, mean effective pressure: 2.7 MPa, engine speed: 750 rpm, cylinder number: 6, shaft end horsepower: 3430 kW), was completed for the first engine (intended for Maritime Safety Agency),and the land trial was carried out in November,1996.
The engine was developed aiming at a) large output, b) light and compact structure, c) 1ow fuel consumption, d) high reliability, and e) easy main-tenance based on the long-cherished fundamental techno1ogy (basic tests and analytical techno1-ogy).
The engine employed the following new techno1-ogy to cope with the large output, the light weight,and the low fuel consumption, presenting a me-dium speed diesel engine of epoch-making high reliability.
1) The bolt-less piston is emp1oyed, in which the
bolt connection is abolished to greatly reduce the weight of the lnoving parts.
2) The wear resistant ceramics sprayed coating is
employed on the sliding surface of the cy[inder liner to remarkably improve the sliding perfor-lTlftl1Ce.
3) The special air intake and exhaust system of
single valve typc capable of securing the area of the air intake and exhaust passage larger than that in thc conventi(/)nal system is employed to improve the air intake/exhaust work (pumping lOSS).
4) The high pressure fuel injection device is em-
ployed to rcalize the high thermal efficiency by promoting the mixing of the atomized fuel with the air for excellent combustion.
5) The hydraulically controlled drive system for
stablc and silent operation of the air intake/ exhaust valve is employed.
(2) Annual results of manufacture
(2)-l Nun]bcr and output of diesel engines for
1narine usc (over lOO PS) manufacturcd in 1996
* I-/ow speed diesel engine (including the
engines which were delivered in
simple body): 90 sets
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Annual Review 99
* Medium speed diesel engine: 5 sets
(2)-2 The Mitsui MAN B&W NA turbocharger is
mounted on the SKL-MC engine, and 75 sets were manufactured in 1996. Three models of NA70, 57, and 48 were manufactured.
(3) Bridge control system and electronic governor
(B MS -2000)
The device was developed and brought into a commercial stage by integrating the bridge control function, the control room operating function, and the electronic governor function related to the main engine based on the experiences of one thousand and several hundred sets of the remote control device and the electronic govemor for the diesel engines manufactured by Mitsui.
1) Intensive dispIay of the controlled condition/
abnormal condition by the color LCD (in con-trol room)
2) Reduction of the core number of the cables to be
connected by employing the serial communica-tion system between the wheel house and the control room, double provision of the control system line, and improvement of the reliability by the cable connection system which is indi-vidually coped with the in the engine protective system.
3) Digital display of the command and the actua1
speed of the main engine
4) Miniaturization and weight reduction of the
5) Elimination of the deviation in the command of
the engine speed to the division of each com-mand by emp1oying the main telegraph oscilla-tor of the illuminated button switch type. It is
also adaptable to the main telegraph oscillator of handle ty pe .
2.4.12 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Large
[ 1 ] Engine developed in 1996
The Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has per-formed its selLimposed development of the large low-speed 2-cycle UEC engine which is the only one in Japan since 1955, and the line-up of the UEC-LSII type engine which is the latest series is reinforced.
In 1996, the UEC43LSII type engine was newly developed in addition to the lined up UEC33/50/ 60/75/85LSII, 85LSC type engines. The UEC43LSIl type engine is positioned as the alter-native engine for the conventional UEC45LA type engine, and covers the range between the UEC33LSII and the UEC50LSII. An extensive output range from about 2,000 PS and 63,000 PS can be covered by the UEC-LSII series by the line-up of the UEC43LSII, realizing the flexible adap-tation to various kinds of ship planning needs.Table 2.4.12- 1 shows the main particulars of the UEC-LSII type engine, and Fig. 2.4.12-1 shows the output range map.
Characteristics of the UEC43LSII type engine are not only the basic concept of the high reliability and the high economy (1ow fuel consumption) similar to those of other UEC-LSII series, but also the further simplified design for a compact engine such as integration (by casting) of the cam shaft box with the frarne, and integration (by casting) of the cylinderjacket with the scavenging trunk. Fig.2.4.12-2 shows the structurc of the UEC43LSII
October 1997 (33)
10O Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
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Annual Review 101
To reduce the NOx emission, development and practical application in the extensive technology are challenged such as the simple method by the timing retard and the engine adjustment, the grand NOx reduction technology such as SCR, and the methano1-fired engine for the future techno1ogy,in view of the more concrete IM0 regulations which willcome into effect and the trend of further stringent regulation by each country. Annual results of manufacture
Main engine for marine use
Large 44 sets 1,007,830 PS Medium and Smal1 750 sets 333,350 PS Auxiliary engine for marine use
365 sets 260,243 PS
TotaI 1 159 sets 1,601,423 PS The medium bore UEC50LSII type engine shows the favorable trend of orders received of about 80 sets mainly for the main engines of bulk carriers of 45,000 tons clttss incIuding those manufactured by MHI and its licensees in about 3 years since its production was started.
The UEC engine is also applicable not only for the main engine for marine use but also for the main engine for the land power generation plant, and the order for 8UEC60LSII type engine was received for the 13.5 MW power generation plant dieseI engine intended for Bahaman FPCL in April,1996, and the operation will be started at site within 1997. Fig. 2.4. 12-3 shows the section of the power house of the power generation plant.
2.4.13 Yanmar Diesel Engine Co., Ltd.( 1 ) Development of New Mode1
Development of new models of the main engine and the auxiliary engines formarine use by Yanmar in January through December, 1996 is as fo11ows.Four new engine models whose cylinder bore is 160Q - 330Q were developed for the diesel engine for marine use.
rILese models were developed for the PurPose of the low fuel consumption, the low air poI1u-tion, availability with low grade heavy oil, and low maintenance for the generator engine and the main engine for marine use. Table 2.4.13- l shows the main particulars of 6N 18 and 6N21 type engines, and Fig. 2.4.13- 1 shows the sec-tion of the 6N2 1 type engine.
This model was developed with an emphasis on realizing a generator engine for marine use which is compact in size,light in weight, easy in installation, and low in the fuel consumption and air po11ution. Table 2.4.13-2 shows the main particulars, and Fig. 2.4.13-2 shows the section of the engine.
This model was developed as the second ver-sion for the jointly developed engine with Daihatsu DieseI. It is mainly developed for the main engine of ships engaged in the coastal sewice and fishing boats with an emphasis on the reliability, durability, safety, 1ow fuel con-sumption, 1ow air po11ution, 1ow vibration, and low noise. TabIe 2.4.13-3 shows the main particulars, and Fig. 2.4.13-3 shows the section of the engine.
The 6GX-GT and 6KX-GT engines were devel-oped as a part of the diesel engine X-series which is light in weight, compact in size and large in output for the main engine of medium to small size fishing boats. Both engines are de-
October 1 997 (35 )
102 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
signed under the same concept of being human-friendly and environment-friendly. The stable combustion in the range from the low speed to the high speed is obtained by employing the high pressure injection due to the Yanmar-original unit injector and fuel pump, and the special combustion chamber. Fig. 2.4.13-4 shows the characteristics of the fuel injection of the unit injector employed in this model and that of the conventional fuel injector. In order to obtain the large output and high durability, the cylinder block, the connecting rods and the pistons of novel structure and new materia1 are emp1oyed. At the same time, with an emphasis on the daily examination and maintainability,consideration is paid in arranging all the equip-ment necessary for daily examination on the operation side.
Table 2.4.13-4 shows the main particulars of both models, and Fig. 2.4.13-5 shows the out-line section of the 6KX-GT engine.
The 6HAL2 engine friendly to the environment was developed taking into consideration the exhaust gas emission regulation (IM0 regula-tion) on the sea which is the needs of the times.Four models are included in the basic engines as the series, and Table 2.4.13-5 shows the particu-
1ars of the 6HAL2-DTN engine with highest supercharging degree and with large output.To reduce the stress 1oad in each part as the output is increased, the output is improved by matching the stroke increase with the capacity of the turbocharger while the maximum cylin-
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Annual Review 103
der pressure is suppressed to 12O kg/cm2. Fig.2.4.13-6 shows the section of the engine.
The JH3 series engine was developed aiming at the low price and the large output in the market for small pleasure boats and smal1 fishing boats.The wasteful volume in the combustion cham-
ber is eliminated as much as possible to obtain the excellent combustion performance by em-p1oying the metal gasket, and executing the special working to prevent the stress concentra-tion to the valve recess part, and the durability was secured under the larger output and larger in-cylinder pressure.
Table 2.4.13-6 shows the main particulars of the 4JH3-DT engine, and Fig. 2.4.13-7 shows the photo of the general view.
October 1 997 ( 37 )
104 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
3. Steam Turbines
3.1 Main propu1sion Marine Turbine
Thc main propu1sion turbine manufacturing in 1996 was kind of anemic in Japan with only Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. reporting the completion of four such large marine steam turbines in the year, namely,three 26,800 kW turbines for LNGCs built for Qatar LNG Project and one 29,600 kW turbinc for an I4NGC built for ADNOC LNG project.
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. had no main propulsion turbines to report newly completed in the production shop but saw two LNG's, one built by them for Hiroshima Gas Co., Ltd. and the other bui1t by Chantiers de L'Atlantique, France, for Petronas Marine but both powered by steam turbines of their manufac-ture, golng lnto sea sewlce.
Also commissioned in sea sewice with main pro-pu1sion turbines of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries manu-facturer on board werc No.4 LNGC built by Hyundai Heavy Industrics Co., Ltd., Korea, for Korcan Gas Project and Nos.2 and 3 LNGCs built by Kverner Masa-Yard, Finland, for ADNOC LNG Project.
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Annual Review 105
Newly entered in Mitsubishi Heavy Industries' order book in 1996 were six main propulsion turbines,i.e., three for Qatar LNG Project option-order LNGCs and three for Korean Gas Project LNGCs.
Not a few LNG projects are being planned or implemented in many parts of the world out of concem for environmental protection, prompting active busi-ness inquiries for construction of LNGCs. The pros-pect, therefore, is good that demands for LNGCs, hence main propulsion turbines to power them, wi ll remain brisk for some time to come.
3.2 Steam Turbines for Auxiliary Machinery Ap-
The steam turbines to drive auxiliary marine ma-chinery, such as generators, cargo oil pumps, etc., are manufactured principally by Mitsubishi Heavy Indus-tries, Ltd. and Shinko Industries, Ltd. in Japan.
In 1996, 12 generator turbines were manufactured in Japan, 10 by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. and two by Shinko Industries, Ltd.
Two of the l0 Mitsubishi-manufactured generator turbines were large in capacity ( 12,500 kW) and, deliv-ered for use on board a floating product storage off-shore (FPSO), the largest of the kind as single-cylinder marine steam turbine in Japan.
The manufacturing of generator turbines for diesel ship applications still remains inanimate, probably with little prospects ofimprovement.
On the other hand, 164 cargo oil pump turbines and ballast pump turbines were manufactured in 1996,133 by Shinko Industries, Ltd. and 31 by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. It is expected that the demands for cargo oil pump turbines and ballast pump turbines will rise with the increase in orders likely to be placed with Korean shipbuilders for oil tankers.
The manufacturing of steam turbines for LNGC auxiliary machinery applications is active and expected to remain so henceforth.
4. Gas Turbines and Turbochargers
4.1 Gas Turbines
4.1.1. Main propu1sion engines
Aero-derivative gas turbines for marine use have logged fine operational records taking the advantages of their characteristic as the main engines of naval vessels, high-speed boats, etc.
In Japan, Japan Defense Agency (JDA in short) has been proceeding with the program to be equipped with gas turbines as the main propulsion engines of escort vessels since 1977 fiscal year (FY) and new
vessels have entered in service, successively. Total number of gas turbine powered ships, including under construction or in planning is 44 and the number of installed gas turbines, including spare engines, exceeds 180 sets.
In 1996, two types of ships equipped gas turbine powered propulsion system entered in service. These are DDG type escort vessel ordered in 1991 FY and built at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI), and DD type escort vessel ordered in 1991 FY and built at Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co.,Ltd. (IHI).The propulsion system of the DDG vessel and DD vessel is COGAGl) type with twin propeller shafts.Four sets of General Electric (GE) LM2500 gas turbine (25,000PS) manufactured by IHI are installed in the DDG vessel, and each two set of Rolls-Royce (RR) SMlC gas turbine ( 13,500PS) manufactured by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, LTD. (KHI) and LM2500 gas turbine ( 16,500PS) are installed in the DD vessel.
At the end of 1996, six ships including DDG type escort vessel ordered in 1993 FY and built at MHI, and DD type escort vessel ordered in 1992 FY and buiIt at Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. (MES),are under construction. The shore trial of the LM2500 gas turbine for two DD type escort vessels ordered in 1994 FY was completed at IHI, and integrated shore trial of the propu1sion system combined with LM2500/ SM l C gas turbine was completed at KHI.
Two DD type escort vessels were ordered in 1996 and will be built at IHI and MHI. ]Lese vessels willbe delivered in March 2000.
As to the small high speed boats, fifteen domestic ships of Jetfoil powered by water jets with two sets of Allison 501-KF gas turbine are in service, which were constructed at KHI.
One of the scaled model ships of"Techno Super Liner (TSL)","Hisho" with air cushion type hybrid hull (TSL-A) was converted to the disaster relief ship and delivered to Shizuoka prefecture. TSL is a next genera-tion super-high-speed cargo ship carried forward by the Ministry of Transport and major Japanese shipbuilders.Two set of MFT-8 gas turbines (28,000 PS) whose gas generator has been made by TPM, Canada, developed by MHI for her propulsion and one set of Textron Lycoming FTU gas turbine (2,000 shp) for her lift are installed in the "Hisho".
In Royal Navy, the l l th and 12th ships of Type 23
1) COGAG: COmbined Gas turbine And Gas
2) CODLAG: COmbined Diesel Electric And
October 1997 (39)
106 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
frigate with CODLAG2) type propulsion system con-sisted of each two set of RR SM lC gas turbine and electric motor powered by diesel generator, entered in service. In addition, four ships of Type 23 frigate are under construction or in planning.
One frigate in Canada, one destroyer in China and two frigates in German with CODOG3) type propulsion system with two sets of LM2500 gas turbine entered in servlce.
ln US Navy, six ships of AEGIS type DDG51 class guided missile frigates with COGAG type propulsion system with four sets of LM2500 gas turbine, entered in service. Further, US Navy are proceeding to develop an Intercooled Recuperated (ICR) gas turbine "\VR-21 ",in which RR RB21 l is applied as a base engine, and the engine test for the development has been continuously carried out at the test house in Royal Navy.
4.1.2 Auxiliary generating engines
As to the M l A gas turbine which has been origi-nally developed by KHI, one set of M l A-02 type gas turbine ( 1,000 kW) on each "Hatsuyuki" class DD vessel (total 12 ships), two sets on each "Asagiri" class DD vessel (tota1 8 ships), and one set on each "Abukuma" type DE vessel (tota1 6 ships) -, have been installed.
Two sets of -05 type gas turbine ( 1,200 kW) which is a power-up version of -02 type, on each "Hatakaze" class DDG vessel (tota1 2 ships), two sets on the experimental ship "Asuka", one set on the training vessel "Kashima" - tota17 sets - have been installed.
rILree sets oL25 type gas turbine ( 1,500 kW) were installed in the first DD type escort ship which was ordered in 1991 FY and entered in service. Further,fifteen sets of -25 type are planned to be installed on next five DD type escort ships. Total nine sets of Allison 501-K34 gas turbine (2,500 kW) which were manufactured by IHI, have been installed on "Kongo" type DDG vesse1 (tota13 ships). Further, three sets of 501 -K34 gas turbine are planned to be installed on next DDG vessel. As to the IME 83 1-800 gas turbine (400 kW) introduced as an OEM+ agreement with Garrett Ltd. by Shinko Engineering, Ltd., three sets have been installed on each "Ishikari" class DE vessel (total 3 ships) and one set on each observation ship AGS (tota1 3 ships), and all are in service.
The developments oflarge turbochargers by do-
3) CODOG: COmbined Diesel Or Gas turbine 4) OEM: Original Equipment Manufacturing
mestic technology were announced in the 12 number of the 24th of"Turbomachinary", which is published by Japan Industrial Publishing. The outline of the results by the domestic manufactures of turbochargers for marine diesel engines in 1996 was described below.
IHI manufactured about same number of turbo-chargers as last year, those are 292 sets of VTR4/4N 4E/4D type, 19 sets of VTC4/4A type, 1334 sets of VTRO/ 1 type axial turbine turbocharger, 1379 sets of RU/RH type radial turbine turbocharger, totaling 3024 sets. Then VTR4D type was designed as high air pressure ratio, high efficiency by improving VTR4E type and this was introduced to larger 2 stroke diesel englnes.
MHI manufactured 546 sets of MET type turbo-chargers for 2 cycle and 4 cycle engines which were over about 1500kW. MHI manufactured MET83SE type as the first turbocharger of MET-SE series which was high air pressure ratio and high efficiency in December, and delivered in January 1997. Recently 2 stroke diesel engines request higher mean effective pressure than 18 bar and higher required intake pres-sure than 3.5 bar. MET-SE type was designed to meet these requirements.
MES manufactured 75 sets of NA48/57/70 type turbochargers, including the new type turbochargers of 6 sets of NA48/S type, 5 sets of NA57/T, 12 sets of NA57/T9, under the technical tie-up with German Man B&W company. Thus, in proportion to the increase of requests for higher pressure ratio and higher efficiency of turbochargers, there is an upward tendency of manu-facturing new model turbochargers.
KHI manufactured 1 1 sets of NA48/T, 17 sets of NA48/S,4 sets of NA57/T9,13 sets of NA70/T9 in 1996. KHI has started the production of the new model NA57/T9 since '94 and NA48/S since '95 as higher air pressure ratio and higher efficiency turbocharger. At the same time, the production of highly efficient turbo-charger NA/70/T09 started, and the number of manu-facturing NA70/T09 type turbocharger had reached 13 sets in this year. The production of the main diesel engines in the I0000 BHP output range have been increased, accordingly, the production of NA48/S type was inc reased.
Niigata Engineering Co., Ltd. manufactured 359 sets of NR/R type, 2 sets of NA/T type, and 37 sets of conventional model, totaling 398 sets under the techni-cal tie-up with German Man B&W company. Niigata Engineering had started manufacturing NR29/S,NR34/ S type since 1995, and NR20/S,NR24/S, NR40/S type since 1996.
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Annual Review l07
The number of production of the boilers for marine use has been gradually decreased since 1990, but it was increased in 1995 by about 30 sets compared with that in 1994 to show the brakes on the decrease.
In the technological aspect, researches and devel-opments have been advanced in the energy saving,labor saving, 1ow grade fuel, treatment of waste oil,exclusive and mixed combustion of gas/heavy oil in-cluding the gas-fired auxiliary boiler, and countermea-sures for the air pollution by NOx, SOx, etc. Necessity of the research and development from the aspect of reinforcing the integrity of the global environment is further strengthened though it was once in the slow-down trend due to the yen appreciation.
5.2 Number of Production
Fig 5.l and Fig.5.2 show the production of boilers for marine use during 1l years since 1986 which are summarized in "Statistics of Products in Marine Indus-try" by the Ministry of Transport.
Fig. 5. 1 shows the number of production of boilers by the kind, and the number of the steam boilers (main boiler + auxiliary boiler) have been decreasing with the value in 1990 as the top, but the number of production in 1995 was 1207o compared with that in the previous year. The number of production of exhaust gas econo-mizers was also increased in 1995. Other boilers (hot water boiler, thermal oil boiler, etc.) have been de-creased in number since 1991 in which the production was remarkably increased, and the total production has been leveled off since 1992.
Fig. 5.2 shows the weight of production to the number of production of the boilers, and the weight of production has been decreased since 1992 in which the weight of production was maximum due to upsizing of the boilers, but the weight in 1995 was increased to 1207o compared with that of the previous year.
5.3 Major Trend 5.3.l Main Boiler Two sets of main boilers 63T/H for LNG carriers were manufactured by MHI, 8 sets of main boilers of 54T/H were manufactured by MES, and total 10 sets of main boilers were delivered. MHI received orders of 6 sets of 67.5T/H boilers, MES received orders of 6 sets of 54T/H boilers, and KHI received orders of 2 sets of 68T/H boilers, totaling 14 boilers. LNG carriers are delivered to Korea and Qatar.
Demands on the main boilers for the Korean Gas Project in 199'7 will be expected.
5.3.2 Auxiliary Boiler
One hundred and forty four sets of auxiliary boiL ers, and 157 sets of composite boilers were manufac-tured in 1996. Fig. 5.3 shows the number of production and the orders received of main and auxiliary boilers by 8 boiler manufacturers in 1996 with reference to the boiler capacity. The boilers of 3. 1 - 10T/H class are
October 1997 (4 1 )
108 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
small in number, but on the whole, the record shows about 1407o compared with that in the previous year as the demands by tankers are increased.
Fig. 5.4 shows the sunlmary of the number of production and orders received of the composite boil-ers, and the record show about 1307c compared with that in the previous year supported by the demands of bulk carriers.
No specially new techno1ogies were developed in the auxiliary boiler but in the composite boiler, a new series OSV1/2 of vertical smoke tube type boiler with an emphasis on the maintenance aspect was introduced in the market from Osaka Boilers, and a new series MISSIONOS/OL series was introduced in the market from Orborg S un Rod .
The Sub Committee on Boilers of the Energy System Committee summarized the reference value on the water quality control for the auxiliary boilers for marine use.Researches on the monitoring system of the auxiliary boiler/exhaust gas economizer were achieved and the future monitoring system is under discussion based on the findings.
5.3.3 Exhaust Gas Economizer
Seventy three sets of exhaust gas economizer were produced in 1996, and exhaust gas economizers of approximately same number have been continuously produced for four years since 1994.
Fig. 5.5 shows the number of production and the orders received of exhaust gas economizer by 8 boiler manufacturers with reference to the boiler capacity.
Only one large exhaust gas economizer for the turbo generator intended for VLCCs and container carriers, was produced showing the trend of miniatur-1ZEttl0n.
This is considered to be attributable to reduction of opportunities in emp1oying a large exhaust gas econo-mizers from the economical aspect due to reduction in
the energy collection ratio by the drop of the exhaust gas temperature associated with jmprovement in the fuel consumption of the nlain engine.
6. Shafting System
In 1996, delivery of the single-hull car ferry of highest speed in the world and a new contra-rotating propeller system were announced, but generally speak-ing most of the shipbuilding companies built ships in which simiIar shafting system to that in the previous year was enlployed.
The Contra-Rotating Propeller System which is of energy saving propuIsion system of ships was em-ployed to VLCCs buiIt by MHI and IHI in 19931).2) and a new systcm shown in Fig. 6.1 which was jointly deve loped by KHl, S HI , N KK, Hitachi Zosen, and MES was completed in March, I9963).b. The joint development was started in 1992, and the techno1ogical potential and thc originality of these five companies were united in the development with an emphasis on the development of the propeller design system optimum for thc CRP system, the contra-rotating bearing, and the double shaft structure. The system is characterized in the employment of the CRP of high efficient designed by the optimum design system, and the system emp1oy-ing the AHT bearing (Advanced Hydrostatic Taperland Bearing) which was newly developed for the contra-rotating bearing.
The AHT bearing is basically the hydrostatic type bearing to support the shaft with high pressure lubricat-ing oil as indicated in Fig. 6.2, and provided with a plurality of tapered elements of the hydrodynamic type sliding bearing on the bearing surface. It is capable of forming the sufficient oil film irrespective of the ratio of the number of revolution of the inner and outer shafts, and is characterized in that the oil film can be
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Annual Review l09
kept by the dynamic pressure even when the hydraulic pressure source is lost.
Ships of various kinds of propu1sion systenl and hull structure are put into practical usc, including Techno-Super Liner "HISHO", hydrofoil type, air-cushion vehicle type, and wave-piercing type catama-ran, orienting the higher speed of ships. Large ferries "SUZURAN", and "SUISEN" intended for Shin Nihonkai Ferry and built by IHI in June, 1996 are the twin-shaft ships with the main engine of 23,830 KW diesel engine, and their service speed is 29.4 knots to realize the single-hull car ferries of highest speed in the world. KHI carried out the model test of the contro1-lable pitch propeller to secure the efficiency to achieve the intended ship speed and to suppress the cavitation because the design conditions of the propeller far exceed the ever-experienced data, and the ship speed of 31.4 knots was recorded in the sea trial.
Employment of a large diameter article which is first in Japan, and the phenol resin bearing (Railko) making use of the freeze fitting method has been increased for the stem tube bearing for oillubrication.Nagasaki Shipyard ofMHI fitted the bearing of l,800mm overalllength (split into 3 pieces in the axial direction)
for two 280,00() DWl' tankers with the propeller bear-ing dianleter of Q1,000 nlln. Oppama Shipyard of SHI succeeded in fitting the bearing to the hull in an ex-tremely short time by first employing the freeze fitting method by liquid nitrogen in place of the conventional press-fit method of the bearing using the hydraulic jack in the series ships of new bulk carriers.
Fig. 6.3 shows the non-pollution type stern tube seal for oil lubrication developed by Eagle Industry Co., Ltd. The EVA seal (product name: Stem Ace) to purge the fresh water of prescribed amount has been emp1oyed on about 25 ships.
Regarding the topics of technical assistance, KHI placed a contract to supply the manufacturing techno1-ogy of the water jet propulsion machine for high-speed crafts with Su1zer Hydro in Germany in July, 1996.
October 1997 (43)
l 1O Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
This machine was developed for the general purpose water jet propulsion machine capable of being adapted to various kinds of high-speed crafts based on the accumulated technology for the jet foil, and has been mounted on the wave-piercing type high-speed cata-maran car ferry "HAYABUSA" intended for Kyushu-Shikoku Ferry Boat, and the patrol boat for the Mari-time Safety Agency.
In the academic papers, the test results on the friction of the tapered contact surface in the keyless propeller were reported5).
The fitting test and the torque slip test were carried out using the model of the propeller boss and the shaft to obtain the difference in the coefficient of friction by the presence/absence of the lubricant and the combina-tion of materials. As a result, it is concluded that fitting c1ose to the upper limit of the al1owable fitting quantity is effective to prevent the slip.
7. Auxiliary Machinery & Outfitting Works The production of CFCs (Chloro Fluoro Carbon) Refrigerants, which the previous refrigerating systems had used widely, stopped from the end of 1995. There-fore the subjects of the developments and studies in the section of auxiliary machinery & outfitting works of 1996 became mainly the refrigerators and the refriger-ating systems that used the altemative refrigerants. The further details of these are as fol1ows.
7.1. Studies on HCFC-22 Alternative Refrigerant
Air Conditioning Systems1)
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has developed the refrigerating systems that used ternary non-azeotropic mixtures R407C (HFC32/125/134a [23/25/ 52 wt7o]) as HCFC-22 alternative refrigerant. It has almost the same performance as the HCFC-22. Ac-cording to plan, the regulation of HCFC (Hydro Chloro Fluoro Carbon) refrigerant starts from 1996 and the production ofit phases out by 2020 except special use.Among possible alternatives for HCFC-22, R407C is nearly equivalent in pressure to HCFC-22, therefore it has a possibility of being used without any significant design changes being required for existing systems.Consequently R407C became the refrigerant of this system. As this temary mixture refrigerant R407C is not azeotropic, the refrigerant temperature is change-able depending upon quality even at a constant pres-sure. Consequently this is the reason why it is neces-sary to improve the existing heat exchanger (a con-denser and an evaporator). Further, when excess refrig-
erant increases in the accumulator, the composition of refrigerants with lower boiIing point increases notably.Therefore the shift of refrigerant composition directly affects the performance and operating point of the system. Since HFC (Hydro Fluoro Carbon) refrigerants do not contain chlorine in their molecular structure,they have poor miscibility compared with conventional refrigeration lubricants (mineral oiI and alkyl benzene oil), so that it is difficult for the lubricants to apply for the system. These problems required the improve-ments of the system as follows. The counter flow,which is superior to the paralle1 flow in temperature efficiency, betters the radiation efficiency of the heat exchanger. As the rate of COP (coefficient of perfor-mance) ofincrease of R407C for each l OC in subcooling temperature is larger than that of HCFC-22, the more proper control of the subcooling temperature takes place in the R407C system. Effective refrigeration lubricants must have both high heat stability and high lubricating ability as well as the above mentioned properties (miscibility with refrigerants and high insu-lating ability). As a result of studies into various esters,it was evident that polyol esters of pentaerythrito1s are most suitable as a base oil. A test system has been ready in order to confirm their effect by actual experiments.As a result, it has been clear that the R407C systems have a level of performance and COP nearly equivalent to that of the HCFC-22 systems. Now this system is in the improvement stage for practical application.
7.2 Development of HFC134a Centrifugal Refrig-
Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.[IHI] has developed a centrifugal refrigerator using HFC 134a as the refrigerant to reduce the burden on the environment. IHI put two refrigerators with 844 kW refrigerating capacity (240 ton of refrigeration) to prac-tice use in July, 1995, and finished a trial run of a large type centrifugal refrigerator with 21 10 kW refrigerat-ing capacity (600 ton of refrigeration) in February,1996.
Fig. 7.1 Shows the construction of the centrifugal compressor and motor unit. A centrifugal refrigerator is generally large and has been using Rl l of usual 1ow pressure refrigerant. If one uses HFC 134a as R 12 altemative refrigerant of high pressure refrigerant, the compressor becomes smal1. However, the resistance factor on the impeller surface increases and the gas leakage between the rotor and stator affects largely and the reduction of the performance becomes remarkable because of the small specific volume of HFC134a (about 1/5 times of Rl 1). Therefore the best design of the shape of the impelIer, the thickness of the blade and
(44) Bu1letin of the M.E.S.J., Vo1. 25, No.2
Annual Review ll1
the strength of the impeller can improve the adiabatic efficiency of the compressor by about 47c from that of the current compressors. Also conceming to the lubri-cants, the mineral oil applies for the previous Rl1 systems. As this oil does not mix with HFC134a and adheres to the surface of a heat-transfer tube, it is unsuitable for HFC134a system. So this compressor becomes to use the ester oil that has miscibility and high insulating ability. However the ester oil does not have past records of practical use and has poor chemical stability. As a result of many experiments for every kind ester oil, the compressor becomes to use the ester oil that has both high lubricating ability and high chemical stability. Furthermore the compressor adopts the two circle types bearing as the joumal one in order to withstand high speed rotation and the thrust bearing in the low speed shaft in order to improve the mechani-cal stability. This system adopts the c1osed type cen-trifugal compressor as mentioned above and the new control system for HFC 134a. Consequently IHI com-pleted the large type centrifugal refrigerator that en-ables stable operation.
7.3 Development of the Swing Compressor for Al-
ternative Refrigerant HFC3)
DAIKIN Industries, Ltd. developed the Swing Compressor for small type refrigerator using altema-tive refrigerants (HFCs). The rotary piston type com-pressor has simple structure and high reliability. The present refrigerators have used this type widely. How-ever, if altemative refrigerants (HFCs) is applied to this type, poor lubrication and poor airtight occur between a rolIer and a blade (the part of mixed lubricating) and consequently capillary pluggs. So adopting a new mechanism of unification of the roller and the blade so1ves thcse problems. Therefore the swing compres-sor that adopts this mechanism can apply to altemative refrigerants (HFCs).
As shown in Fig. 7.2, the previous rotary compres-sor constructs from a cylindrical roller and a blade (a divining plate) and they form compression chamber in a cylinder. As the swing compressor unites these two components, a sliding part between the roller and the blade does not exit. rlLerefore in the swing compressor,the ro1ler (piston) does not selLrotate and must move in
October 1 997 (45 )
1 12 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
oscillatory motion, which is enabled by adopting the oscillatory motion bush (swing bush). As a result, the swing compressor maintains all merit of the previous rotary compressor and has high reliability, high me-chanical efficiency and high volume efficiency. It can operate very effectively on the whoIe. This compressor will become a center of attraction as one of new machines for altemative refrigerants.
7.4. Development of the Mitsubishi Self-Jector
Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha Ltd. has developed "Mitsubishi Self-Jector SJ-F serjes" which was the improvement of the purifier SJ-E series. The perfor-mance of toughness and maintenabiIity of them are more excellent than those of previous machines.
As shown in Fig. 7.3, The main construction of the body is the same of the previous E series, but the system structure and the cach part of are improved in detail.The newly two systems add to the previous system.They keep the stable operation of the purifier. One is the sludge discharge contro1 system. This system fixes the interval time of the discharge of sludge automati-cally due to the concentration change of sludge by the inline-type sludge sensor fitted in the dirty liquid line and the clean oil line. Another is the operational monitoring and diagnostic system. This system can do not only monitoring on board but also transferring data to a remote place, and can monitor and diagnose the
operating conditions of 6 separators simultaneously,analyze the vibration data and check the bearing and the unbalance of the rotor and so on. It can supply the data necessary for the safety operation instantly. Concem-ing to the toughness performance of the machine, by nlaking the weight and the moment ratio of inertia of the rotor most suitable, the stability of rotation increases,the life of thc upper bearing becomes longer more two timcs than that of the E series. Also on the mai141tenance,thc interval tinle of cleaning the rotor becomes onc year of an aim by improving the performance of discharging sludge and the performance of the cleaning device. rrhc interval tinle of thc overhaul becomes two years of an aim because of the high toughness of the whole of the rotating shaft system and the long life of the upper bearing. As mentioned above, this purifier did not get total development, but it can operate nlore easily than before because of the additional improvement for us-(;rs.
7.5.Marine Decompose Machine for Kitchen
Garbage with Biological ControI5)
Shinyo Sangyo Co., Ltd. has developed the marine dcconlpose machine for kitchen garbage. This ma-chine is able to operate under naturallaw without sea and air po11ution and use of limited oil resources. It satisfies the requircd conditjons for marine use. If garbage buried in the ground, generally it takes a few months to decompose itself. This machine removes the
(46) Bulletin of the M.E.S.J., Vo1. 25, NoQ2
Annual Review l 13
blocking material for decomposition. It maintains the best condition of the decomposition medium equal to the ground. This machine is able to compose the garbage and extinguish it for only 12 hours. Its opera-tion is without smell, discharging water and heating.For that purpose this machine watches the condition of microbes by the sensor in the treatment reservoir. It analyzes the condition by a micro-computer and indi-cates the result by display lamps. This machine always keeps the condition in a normal value using all mecha-nisms. Therefore it can fulfi11 continuously the function of decomposition and extinction mentioned above for a long time between half and one year. The users who have a little knowledge on the microbcs can grasp the accurate condition of the machine as wel1.
Fig. 7.4 shows the comparison of the previous system and this system. This machine controls degree of dryness of the decomposition medium, equilibrium of garbage and nlicrobes, treatment temperature and so on. It can decompose and extinguish the garbage without a deodorization unit. Controlling the degree of
the dryness, it does not discharge water accompanied by decomposition. Also controlIing supply of aerobia and air, it can perform the decomposition at normal temperature without heating.
1) Mitsubishi Juko Giho, Vo1.33 No.2 ( 1996.3) pp90 2) Ishikawajima-Harjma Engineering Review,Vo1.36-4 ( 1996.7), pp321
3) Refrigeration, Vo1.71 No.821 ( 1996.3), pp230 4) Marine Engineer, 1996.6. I No.594, pp 16
5) Shinyo Sangyo Co., Ltd., Tcchnical Reports
8. Deck Machineries
The new developments of technology were the folIowing two in the section of deck machinery in 1996.One was the contro1 system that keeps bridge's con-struction supporting vessel a certain position accu-
Oc tober 1 997
1 14 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
rately under severe environmental conditions and an-other the high speed loading system that the develop-ment of Techno-Superliner (TSL) required. The fur-ther details of these are as follows.
8.1 Development of Dynamic Positioning System
for Bridge's Construction Supporting Vessel1) Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has developed the dynamic positioning system with Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority. It has been the advanced control type system to keep a position of bridge's construction supporting vessel under environmental conditions such as a tidal current, a wind and so on. It has applied to an actual vessel. The effectiveness of the system has made clear by simulations and experiments at the Strait of Kurushima in Japan. This vessel shapes a box type.She equips the four corners with the 360o steerable propellers (actuator) which can drive 360O freely in design. The position keeping control system makes the power output of these four actuators the most suitable and keeps the position of the vessel accurately under severe environmental conditions of the sca.
Fig. 8.1 shows the construction and connection of this system. The control apparatus consists of (1) the operation board, (2) the main control console, (3) the operation and monitor panel and (4) the connector. It connects to the various sensors and the four actuators that the vessel equips. Particularly this system can remove a bad influence that the unknown force such as a tide current and so on gives its control system, and it can maintain the position-keeping control performance.The self-propulsion bridge's construction supporting vessel "Umashima" equips the syStem. She is 500 tons in weight,54.55 m in 1ength, 48 m in width and fits out actuators of a thrust of 6.4 tons at the tbur corners. She examines the system on perfomlance at the Strait of Kurushima. As a result, perforlnance in position-keeping, when a girder lifts under a strong tide current (3 knots), is extrcmely good. The relative gap, which is betweel^1 the vessel and the girder block, is less than
20 cm at this time. After this, we expect that this system will apply to vessels of the various types.
8.2 Development of rl'echno-Superliner (TSL) types
vessel "HISHO" and lligh Speed Loading Sys-tem2)
Mitui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co.,LJtd. (MES),jointly with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI),has performed the development of the high speed loading vessel "Techno-Superliner (TSL)" that was the national project by the Ministry of Transport, They designed and constructed the 70 m typed large test model TSL-A"HISHO". They tested it on an open sea.In 1995 they carried out the actual operation tests and cargo handling ones with fully loaded "HISHO" on her expected service route so that they established the overall technology of the high speed marine transpor-tation system by TSL. They obtained many important results conceming ship design and high speed cargo handling techniques from these tests. The development of TSL aimed at perfection of the conditions that "speed 50 knots (about 93 kn] per hour), 1oad capacity l0OO ton, a cruising range of more than 500 miles (about 930 km) and capability of cruising on a rough sea". As a result of tests, "HISHO" achicved the purpose suffi-ciently. The high speed loading system at the port is very important to achieve the high speed transportation systenl by TSL. MES, NKK Corporation and MHI have developed jointly "the Horizontal Cargo Handling Sys-tem" between TSL and a quay wal1. With thc actual operation test by HlSHO on an open sea, they have carried out the landover test of this 1oading system.They have developed this system to aim that they can load and unload 150 containers of the 20 feet's type,with being doublc decked on board of TSL, into the vessel within one hour.
As shown in Fig. 8.2, this system comprises ( 1) the four 20 feet's containers loading typed self-moving truck (that lnoves by hydraulic pressure produced by a built-in diesel engine), (2) the 9.5 m length ramp way
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Annual Review l 15
and the delivery unit with lm - 4m rise and fall mechanism of delivery stage, (3) the pedestal for con-tainers and the deck unit with fastening mechanism for containers and (4) the wireless controller for the former three parts that is abIe to control a series of cargo handling sequence automatically. As a result of the experiment, the cargo handling system can operate nearly as planned, even if the vessel is pitching and rolling by sea waves and a movement of the truck. The self-moving truck can move between the quay's side delivery unit and the deck unit of TSL without trouble,too. Consequently the development can reach the previous ajm fully and clearly.
1) Mitsubishi Juko Giho, Vo].33 No.6 ( 1996.1 1 ),
2) Mitsui Zosen Technical Review1, Vo1.159
9. Fuels and Lubricating Oils
9.1.l Trend of Oil Demand
The influence of the Gulf War in thc beginning of 1990's has faded away and transition of the interna-tional oil situation in 1993 - 1995 has been relatively settled. Although the crude oil price was in the range of 16 - 19 dollars per barrel (Brent crude oil) sincc 1993,the price was constantly changed at the level of much more than 20 dollars. One of the rcasons tbr rise of the crude oil price is that.as a result of continued economi-
cal growth in the East Asia countries including China and prosperous U.S. economy the trend oflow stock in the petroleum enterprises in Western countries has influence in addition to steady increase in demand for petroleum.
On the other hand in supply situation OPEC con-tinued the production limit (24.52 million barre1/day) which was decided in September 1993 until June 1996,but on the contrary the non-OPEC countries, in particu-lar Norway, U.K., etc. increased record-breakingly the.production of crude oil. Therefore the greater quantity ofincrease in demand was absorbed by the non-OPEC coLLrltrles.
However, from vicwpoint oflong-terln supply and delnand of pctroleum thc supply sjtuation is not neces-sarily promising.
Acc()rding to "World Encrgy Prospect" ( 1996 versiorl) ofIEA (International Energy Agency) the denland for petroleum is expected to be increased at the rate of more than l million barrel/day towards 2010 mainIy in Asia.Pacific region.
In the supply situation production of crude oil in non-OPEC countries and Asia.Pacific region was in-creased as shown in Table 9. 1 "Transition of World's Crude Oil Production". However, since discovery and development of new oil fields cannot meet the demand,the forecast is that the production will reach the limit in near future. In the future it can be said that it will be unavoidable that the whole Asian countries will in-creasingly depend on the petroleum in the Middle East countries. The ratio of the Middle East to the world in petroleum supply is expected to be raised to more than 50% in 20101}.
Oc tober 1 997 ( 49 )
1 16 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
9.1.2 Marine Fuel Oils
Demand for heavy oil in Asia.Pacific bloc is less than that for other petroleum products, however an increase in demand for heavy oil showed the highest increase in the world, and it is expected that 3.5 miIlion barre1/day in 1996 will increase to 3.9 million barre1/ day in 2000 and further increase to 4.3 million barre1/ day in 2005. In particular growth rate of the bunker heavy oil among heavy oils is high, and it is expected that 580 thousand barre1/day (about 177o of the total types of oils) will increase to 690 thousand barreI/day in 2000 and further increase to 810 thousand barrel/day in 2005. Consequently the bunker heavy oi I will be short in Asia.Pacific bloc and may be increasingly imported from the MiddIe East and Northwest Europe.
The sales volume of the bunker heavy oil in Singapore which is the largest bunker base in Asia.Pacific bloc was somewhat decreased in spite of increase in cargo handling volume, that is, the sales volume of the bunker in Singapore was decreased to 305 thousand barre1/day in 1996 from 3 18 thousand barre1/day in 1 994.
On the other hand the sales volume of the bunker heavy oil in Korea was increased by 137o in 1996 and reached l17 thousand barre1/day due to installation of new toppers. The sales volume was somewhat in-creased even in Thailand and Indonesia.
With repeal of the Temporary Measure Law of Specific Petroleum Product Import at the end of March,1996 the petroleum industry entered a full-scale liber-alization and internationalization times, but on the background of such environmental change the measure for transition to the new price system reflecting further the intemational price is being required.
Table 9.2 shows Demand Result of Bond Heavy 0il in Japan in 1996. Import for acceptance was 1.9
million KL which increased by 780 thousand KL com-pared with the previous year, but domestic production was 2.21 million KL which decreased by 3.30 million KL compared with the previous year. Sales volume was 4.19 million KL which was 607o compared with the previous year and decreased as same as that in 1995.
The sales volume depends on user's purchase in Japan or in overseas such as Singapore, that is, it can be said that domestic price tended to be higher than over-seas price. Further whether heavy oil is imported or produced in Japan varies every year depending on crude oil processing volume in Japan and supply and demand of fuel oi l C.
The trend of contro1 of the exhaust gas from ships was not greatly changed in 1995 as same as in 1994.However, Intemational Maritime Organization (IMO)/ Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) decided to submit ( 1) Sulfur content control in general sea area: 57o, (2) Monitoring sulfur content in fuel oil and (3) Special sea area designation of the North Sea and the Ba1tic Sea as the fuel oil related subjects to the diplomatic conference of the 40th IMO/MEPC which will be held in Autumn in 1997. Part of the technical regulations, etc. regarding NOx has not yet agreed, but there may be greater possibilities of earlier effective-ness of the treaty. Also in Japan Study Committee on Ship Air Pollution Control is carrying out the examina-tion2} to control air pollution materials emitted from ships entrusted by the Environment Agency.
In ISO 8217 Standard of the marine fuel oils the
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AnnuaI Review l 17
specified values of aluminum + silicon and potential whole sediment have been additionally revised. In ISO/TC28/SC4/WG6 held in November 1996 for the regular revision the engine entrance standard has been proposed as the Japanese engine makers' requirement.Further in CIMAC meeting standardization of the fuel ignition testing apparatus (FIA) as index of ignition property and standardization of the super heavy oils have been proposed.
Since in Japan also the current heavy oil standard of JIS is remarkably estranged from the actual state of the marine fuel oil quality, the users, makers and petroleum industry are making study on establishment of JIS using the specified value referring to the ISO Standard.
Further the Fisheries Cooperative Associations Federation (FCAF) has revised the Petroleum product standard for fishing boats of the FCAF in December 1994.
As the reports regarding the trend of fuel oils,Petroleum Circumstances in Southeast Asia3), Study on trend, research and development of energy in Asia region4) and Study on change of petroleum demand structure in Asia.Pacific Region and inf]uence ofit on Japan5 ) are reported.
As the reports regarding the fact-finding of the demanders, "Fact-finding of demanders for industrial fuel oil C for higher rationalization of the petroleum refinery facilitiesO", "the Sixth and seventh fact-find-ing of Domestic ships using fuel oil A.A/C blend oil and Mono-fuel oil C firing Domestic ship7)", ''Guide-line for measures for low quality marine fuel oi18) and Fact-finding of quality and supply and demand regard-ing establishment of JIS for marine fuel oil are reported.
As for the manufacturing process of the petroleum product and quality of fuel oils, "Manufacturing pro-cess from automotive gasoljne to fuel oil C)" and quality of fuel oils which appears serially in the "PETROTECH" can be referred to.
As for combustion "Evaluation of combustibility and application to marine fuel oill1), "Reliability of recent marine fuel and main propu1sive engine12)'' and in the 41st Special fund lecture meeting as the ship owners' reports of the study on their own ships13) the present state of marine heavy oil, and the present state of the preprocessing system of the fuel oils and what it should be are reported from the viewpoint of the ship ow1lel.s .
1 ) Petroleum Industry Today, April 1 994., Petro-
leum Association of Japan
2) Study on Methods of Ship Air Pollution Contro1
Study on Measurement of Air Po1lution from Ships( 1996)
3) PETROTECH Vo1. 18( I 995), Vo1. 19( 1996)
4) Domes tic Report of Research and Development
Union of New Utility of Petroleum Light Fraction (February 1996)
5) Research and Development Union of New Utility
of Petroleum Light Fraction ( 1996), Contract Re-search by Agency of Natural Resources and En-ergy (fiscal 1995)
6) Petroleum Energy Center( 1995)
7) Japanese Domestic Ship Union(1994,1997)
8) Guideline for Measures for Low Quality Marine
Fuel OiI, Nippon Kaiji Kyoukai ( 1996)
9) Nisseki Techno1ogies Co., Ltd., (March 1997),
Contract Research by Agency of Natural Resources and Energy (fiscal 1996)
10) PETROTECH, Vol.17, No.9 - Vo1.18,No.5 1 1) Nisseki Review Vo1.38, No.4( 1996)
12) The Academic Lecture, Marine Engineering Soci-
ety in Japan( 1996)
13) The 41st Special Fund Lecture Meeting, Marine
Engineering Society in Japan
9.2 Marine Engine Lubricants and Additives
The total sales of marine engine oil in Japan was 239, 487kf in l996. It is approximately 47o increase comparing to 1995 and it seems likely to stop the reduction of the sales with the rate of a few percent every year continuously. We consider that it is due to a little economic recovery and the decrease oflubricant purchase overseas based on strong yen.
Recent engine performance increasel) and fuel quality degradation have been making marine lubri-cants leave in more severe situation. Trunk piston engine may often give fuel dilution of lubricants due to fuel leakage from fuel pumps, and/or blowdown of unbumt fuel from cylinder wal1s. These days, black sludge problems has been occurred in the engines caused by poor fuel quality2) and abnormal deposits are formed in camshaft housings and crankcases3). It is attributable to the increase of asphaltene content in the residue used as marine engine fuel, since the utilization of Iight distillates in crude has been increased due to techno1ogical development. There has been an activity to standardize the concentration of asphaltene+. On the other hand it has been countermeasured by lubricant additives. Calcium Salycilate is quite effective for black sludge in addition to calcjum phenate has been used so far, moreover additives with high cost perfor-
October 1997 (5 1 )
1 18 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
mance were developed recently5} and they started to use the additives for black sludge formation protection and controlling engine cleanliness.
CEC surveyed medium speed marine engine oil trouble with fuel dilution by questionnaire, Japanese and European OEMs replied to the questionnaire. As the results it was found that the fuel dilution gave large effect to fuel pump sticking and piston undercrown.
Running in is very important for the elimination of engine troubles such as abnormal wear. For this pur-pose the break in characteristics was studied with the measurement of lubrication condition during the run-ning in(}).During the running in, the surface of the rubbing parts becomes smooth with corrosion by the acid which is formed by the combustion of sulfur in the fuel. Therefore the TBN of running in oil should be reduced. However, simple reduction of TBN will cause loss of detergency to create deposits such as lacquer in the engine6). In order to countermeasure we should formulate the additive reducing TBN with keeping the detergency performance.
CECIL-47 asked questionnaire on test engines for marine engine oil evaluation. There were positive re-sponses from Japan.
According to the summary of the questioinnaire there were 6 cross head engines and 13 trunk piston engines used as lubricant evaluation engines: 2 cross head engines and 3 truck piston engines from Japan.
It is a big problem that used oil of automotive lubricants and industrial lubricants is mixed with ma-rine engine fue12).4). Marine engine fuel properties recommended in the inlet of Engine2) and needs for method measuring used oil content in the fue15) have been discussed. It is considered that the countermea-sure by marine engine oil will also be necessary .
There has been various study on the reduction of particulates and NOx in exhause emissions7).8}. How-ever, we cannot find the investigation on the engine oils related to emissions and the more research and devel-opment is desired.
1 ) MER Ann ual Rev iew 1 996
2) Recent marine engine fuel and engine reliability,
Danjo, page 200 of 57th lecture meeting of MESJ 3) CEC IL047 Sub group "Fuel and Lubricant Interations" revision 7, March 1996
4) CIMAC WG "Heavy Fuels" March 1996
5) Fuel & Lube Oil, Diesel & Gas Turbine World-
wide December 1996
6) Study on Running in Characteristics of Marine
Low Speed Diesel Engine, Mitsutake and
Takahashi, page 18 1, Joumal of the MESJ 3 1 -3,1996
7) MESJ, 56th Lecture Meeting 8 ) MESJ, 5 7 th Lec ture Meeting [Nobuaki KOJIMA]
10. Nuclear Powered Ships
10.l Research and Development by Japan Atomic
Energy Research Institute
10.1.l Nuclear Powered Ship ''Mutsu''
The nuclear powered ship "Mutsu" completed the experiments, and overhauled in Sekinehama Mooring Port based on the "Basic p1an on the studies necessary for the research and development of nuclear ship by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute" stipulated by the Prime Minister and the Minister of Transport on 3 1st March, 1985. The works related to the overhaul were started from the cooling of the spent fuel since 1992, followed by the work to take out the spent fuel,the water-draining work, the work to remove the equip-ment in the auxiliary machinery room for the reactor,the dredging work in Sekinehama Port and the excava-tion work of the adjacent land. The reactor was com-pletcly removed by a floating crane from the nuclear powered ship "Mutsu" which was laid up by a semi-submersible barge in July, 1995, and stored in the reactor storage room of the Hal1 of Science and Tech-no1ogy of Mutsu which is the accessory land facility in Sekinehama Village. No reactor facility or radioactive wastes are present in "Mutsu", and the first nuclear powered ship in Japan disappeared completely, but Japan can possess precious data from manufacture of the nuclear power ship to demolition of the ship.
The radioactive wastes which were finally gener-ated by the overhaul works were approximately same as the planned values examined before the overhaul both in weight and radioactivity quantity. Table l0.l shows the planned values and the measured values of the solid wastes. rILe solid radi0aCtive wastes included the primary wastes of about 74 tons, and the secondary wastes of about l I tons, totaling 85 tons. Metals occupied most of the primary wastes, and the ratio of the metals is remarkably large compared with the case of the reactor demolished on land. The measurement through the environmental monitoring confirmed that no radioactive contamination of the surrounding envi-ronment was detected both during the navigation and during the overhaul of Mutsu.
Few examples of the action of reactor demolition are available in Japan, and the action of demolition of the reactor installed on board "Mutsu" provides pre-cious materials for reference in the action of demolition
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Annual Review l 19
of various land reactors which may bc prospected in future.
The hull of"Mutsu" after overhaul was delivered from the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to the Ocean Science and Technology Center so as to be reborn as the oceanographic observation ship of the largest class in the world. rlLe fore part of the hul1 was docked in Tokyo First Works ofIshikawajima Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. and the aft part was docked in Shimonoseki Shipyard of Mitsubishi Heavy Indus-tries, Ltd. The remodeling works have been performed in about 2 years since August, I 995, and the remodeled ship as the oceanographic research ship "Mirai" will be engaged in the fall of 1997. Sekinehama Port which used to be the fixed port for "Mutsu" is also used as the mother port of Mirai", and the service station to per-form the servicing of oceanographic observation buoys to be mounted on board "Mirai" and the building for analysis to process the observed data are under con-strLlctlon.
10.1.2 Studies for Improvement of Marine Reactor
The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has advanced the research and development of the im-proved marine reactor aiming at realization of the future marine reactor together with the research and devc1opment by "Mutsu". In the case of the marine reactor, the requirements for the output, the load condi-tions, and the automation of the operation are different depending on the kind of ship to be used, and the research and development of two kinds of improved marine reactors, i.e., a 1arge marine reactor MRX (Marine Reactor X) and a deep-sea reactor DRX (Deep-sea Reactor X) have been advanced tbr the installation onboard an ice-breaking observation ship and a deep-sea scientific research ship which are expected to be realized soon. The conceptual design has already been established on N/IRX and DRX, and the development of the element techno1ogy such as the fundamental test or the like on the passive safety technology, and the development of the element equipment such as the reactor container bujlt-in type control rod driving de-vice arc advanccd in paralIel. Consideration has been given to how to advance the design and studies on the cngineering level including demonstration of the estab-lishment of the conception, acquisition of the thermohydrostatic data necessary for developing the dctailed design, demonstration of the reliability of thc new concept and the operational and maintenance pe rformance .
MRX is the marine reactor to simultaneously achieve the high safety, miniaturization lnd weight reduction of the system by emp1oying the irt(egral type PWR, the reactor built-in type control rod driving device, the water-filled type containment, and the de-cay heat removing system by the natural circulation.(Sce Fig. 10.1 ) Ue year of 1996 is the final year for examining the techno1ogical design, and the design is realized to the possible degree of buildingl). In particu-lar, the sophisticated automation system, the comp1ete carry-out system (cassette system; Fig. 10.2) which are most important in improving thc economy have been examined in detai l.
October 1997 (53)
120 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
The latter system improves the efficiency of the nuclear powered ship by loading the reactor together with the containment. This system was realized be-cause the MRX is compact and lightweight, and the docking period of the ship is expected around 3 weeks so as not to largely exceed the docking period of conventional ships. The servicing and maintenance by the complete carry-out system has a large economical effect such as security of the workers and technological level and reduction of the working time in addition to the efficient use of the faciIitjes for exclusive use.Standardization of the reactor to provide the inter-changeability also leads to the reduction of the building cost. Thus, the engineering examination of the MRX was completed in 1996 for the present. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute will perform the intensive examination on the DRX which is considered to be practically applied prior to the MRX.
DRX is the integral reactor where the steam gen-erator is built in the reactor container similar to the NIRX, and the turbine and the generator are built in the container, and it has been considered since 1989 as the super-compact power generating unit, and the concep-tion is under examination.
In 1996, the detailed design of the turbine and the generator, the structural and thermaI design of the steam generator, and the response analyses to the hull motion and the fluctuating load and the starting method were considered in succession to those in 1995.
In parallel to the design and studies, it is necessary to so1ve the technical problems necessary for the prac-tical application, and the development of the reactor container build-in type control rod driving device, the basic study on the passive safety technology, the study on the water immersion techno1ogy of the marine reactor, the development of the integral reactor compo-nents, the sophisticated study of the shielding design
technology, development of the sophisticated automa-tion system of the marine reactor plant, and the devel-opment of the high bumup core were implemented. Fig.10.3 shows the concept of the undersea navigation observation ship and the deep-sea stay research ship equipped with the DRX whjch is under consideration.
10.1.3 System Research for Practical Use of Nuclear
It is essential to establish the marine plant with excelllent safety and reliability which is capable of competing with the conventionaI ships in economy,and being accepted by the peopIe and the intemational society in order to be prepared for the practical app1ica-tion of the future nuclear powered ship. For this purpose, it is important not only the demonstration by the model or test device to simulate the actual condi-tion, but also the establishment of various environment necessary for the operation of the nuclear powered ship such as the establishment of the safety standards which are operationally and internationally common as the ship, the establishment of the repair base. The system rcsearch for the prac tical application of the nuclear powered ship is divided into two groups, i.e., Review on the total system related to the operation of a nuclear powered ship" and "Review on the design of a practical nuclear powered ship" with the aim to summarize the requirements for the practical application of the nuclear powered ship from the viewpoint on the need side, e.g.,what nuclear powered ship is required, and what func-tions are to be provided under the expected social environment in future, and with the aim to extract the problems to be so1ved, and the system research has been advanced during five years from 1992 to 1996 fiscal year.
The purpose of"Review on the total system re-lated to the operation of the nuclear powered ship'' is to
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122 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
show the concept of the whole system related to the operation of the nuclear powered ship, and to clarify the stipulation requesting the nuclear powered ship, the system and the environmental conditions to be estab-lished for the operation of the practical nuclear pow-ered ship.
In 1996, the scenario for practical application of the nuclear powered ship and directionality of the development for the time being are examined as the final fiscal year.
The purpose of the consideration related to the design of the nuclear powered ship for practical appli-cation" is to clarify the technical problems and issues for the practical application of the nuclear powered ship in future, to clarify the requirements for the reactor plant in the nuclear powered ship for the practical use,and to make it useful for the concrete development of the marine reactor of the next generation.
In 1996 as the final fiscal year, the detailed con-ceptual design, the calculation of the cost of a SES type super-high speed container carrier and a displacement type large, high speed container carrier, in particular,the nuclear powered ship for commercial use, the image establishment of a jumbo container barge carrier were implemented. As for the nuclear powered ship for special use, the detailed conceptual design of a polar observation ship and deep-sea scientific research ship,and the image establishment of the floating plant for disasters were implemented.
In paralleI to the examination of the nuclear pow-ered ship for commercial use, the needs for the deep-sea and oceanographic examination are examined by Ma-rine Reactor Research Committee of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute so as to embody the utiliza-tion of the DRX2). In 1996, the trend of the deep-sea and oceanographic research and development and arrange-ment of requested items (including the prospects at present and in near future), clarification of the images of the deep-sea and oceanographic research ship, and the requested items for the DRX were examined.
10.2 Research and Development by Ship Research
In succession to the works in 1995, "Studies re-lated to the application of system reliability analysis method GO-FLOW" aimed at the establishment of the element techno1ogy for the reliability analysis for the reactor facility to begin with the marine reactor, and the major accident sequence identification function was examined and the accident propagation simulator was developed.
In the "Studies on improvement of reliability of power supply facilities of the nuclear powered ship",
extraction of the selLsequence which is a problem in evaluating the safety was started for the fire in which the countermeasures to avoid the simultaneous failures are considered to be insufficient.
In the "Studies on the numerical simulation of the thermal hydrostatic behavior of the marine reactor", the secondary non-stationary thermalhydrostatic analysis code was developed in order to simulate the effect of the flow fluctuation derived from the ship motion on the decay heat removing capacity from the core. In the field of the radiation shielding, the evaluation of the perfor-mance of the high performance shielding material, the safety transportation of the retumed radioactive wastes,the development of the high performance liquid shield-ing material, and the development of the ceramics type multi-function shielding material were successsively implemented.
In addition, the effect of the vertical motion on the natural circulating cooling system was studied in suc-cession, and the studies on the utilization techno1ogy of the human integral function to the reactor plant and the autonomous and decentralized cooperative function monitoring system were implemented in succession.
10.3 Research and Development by other Insti-
Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation examined the possibility of establishment of the power source for the deep-sea research ship using the fast reactor and the gas loop. Tokyo University of Mercantile Marine achieved the studies on the flashing and condensation of the high pressure saturated water in the water filled type containment generated in the small LOCA of the MRX and DRX (joint study with Ship Research Institute)+ and the economical evalua-tion of the nuclear powered container carrier engaged in the arctic polar zone route. Kobe University of Mercantile Marine successively achieved the studies on the therma1 flow phenomenon of the passive safety system of the marine rcactor, and on the dynamic characteristics and control of the marine reactors).
1) "Summary of MRX Engineering Design", Japan
Atomic Energy Research Institute, March, 1997 2) "A Report on Working Group for Examination of DRX Utilization to Deep-sea and Oceanographic Research", Marine Reactor Research Committee of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute,March, 1997
3) Materials provided by Izuo Aya (Ship Research
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4) Journal of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan,
39- 1 ( 1997), Takamasa, and two other authors
5) Materials provided by Tomoo Otsuji (Kobe Uni-
versity of Mercantile Marine)
1 1. Automatic control
1 1.l Genera1
Ships of foreign crew on board have been commonsense in Japan in these days and substantial and tough equipment against erroneous operation have been expected. Tendency for down sizing of equip-ment are now in popular and development of compact easy handled and small trouble equipment have been vigorous. On the other hand,labor saving equipment for domestic vessels and fisher vessels have been expected under the condition of lack of young workers and advanced age of crew.
Examples of products in such streams are shown below.
11.2 Machinery system
Terasaki Electric Co., Ltd. developed engine moni-toring system "WE300" of compact and economical design.
The system has one case accommodated whole functions and features of the system are shown below.
Featu res of "WE- 300".
. Advanced reliability by adopting TTT co1or LCD(9.4
inches) and optical touch pane1 . Duplicate hot standby system
. Extension alarm system planned down sizing &
. Small connecting works of cables applying advanced
multiplex transmitting system
11.3 Navigational system
TOKIMEC INC. developed new auto pilot "PR-6000" considering safety and maneuverability under int]uence of circumstance by sea disasters and consoli-dation of rules by PL.
The auto pilot has fol1owing features as a main component of integrated bridge system (IBS) consider-ing future techniques of course keeping.
The auto pilot has fol1owing features as a main component of integrated bridge system (IBS) consider-ing future techniques of course keeping."Features of PR-6000":
. Accommodate rate of tum control conforming draft
of auto pilot performance standard of IM0 resolu-
Magnification of scope of application on several service conditions (auto steering at low speed etc.,for example) by complex auto steering contro1 (all PID controls are applied to adaptive contro1)
. Application of non-effective alarm for rudder con-
trol by wheel taking USCG rule in advance
. Minimizing human error by distinguishing shapes of
switches and distinguishing sounds for control of every function
. Strengthen function of analysis for rare reappearance
troubles by memorizing alarm condition
MITSI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.developed anti-rolling equipment"MARCS-100" for ships.
The equipment acts to suppress ro1ling using rol1-ing moment immediately after rudder control in the region avoiding influence of course keeping effect.
The anti-rolling equipment has functions of anti-,rolling/course keeping.
Azimuth angle and rolling movement are suitably controlled applying modem control theory adopting prediction control by auto regressive model to multi-variable control system consisting of azimuth angle,rolling angular velocity, response of rudder angle and order of rudder angle etc.
MITSI ENGINEERlNG & SHlPBUILDING CO.,LTD. developed ship contro1 system by voice control system co-operated with fisher vessel association and fisher vessel engine association.
The contro1 system are operated by computers verifying voice (order) of operator and transmitting control signals to fishing equipment or ship control equlpment.
The control system are made up by wireless equip-ment, voice controlequipment, voice verification equip-ment and interface (net hoisting machine, clutch of main engine and steering gear).
Voice control equipment is applied recognition of voices for specific persons and registered persons are five and order words are eight.
The voice control system is so designed as to minimize wrong recognition of order words under the circumstance of fishing works.
1) Fune no Kagaku Vo1.49 1996-7
2) The Joumal of Fishing Boad Association of Japan
3) Catalogue of TOKIMEC INC.
4) Catalogue of Terasaki Electric Co., Ltd.
October 1997 (57)
124 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
12. Electronics Technology 12.1 Safe Voyage of Ship
12.1.1 Ship maneuvering Simulator
In the Tokyo University of Mercantile Marine, the advanced and large-scaled ship maneuvering simulator with a projected bridge applicable for a modemized ship was newly installed in Spring of 1996 to upgrade the maneuverer's technique. The bridge where the nautical instruments are arranged (breadth 7m,length 4m, height 2.3m), mock-up of the wing and the screen on which scenery is projected are installed in the simulator room of this equipment.
On the other hand, Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. received the order of 4 units of compact ship maneuvering simulator I-SIM SMS-EC series intended towards compact size and low cost.This equipment is provided with a large-sized monitor to display the scenery and used for training for a smal1-sized ship also other than a large-sized ship.
12.1.2 Integrated Bridge System (IBS)
In order to support safe voyage, ARPA radar,ECDIS satisfying the performance standard ofIMO and IBS in which the nautical instruments are well systemized have been commercialized.
. ATN Atlas Electronics has the sales results of more
than 360 units in Europe and recently developed NACOS 2 which was decided to be equipped on fifteen ships including container ships.
. Sperry sold VISION 2 100 since about 1992 and have
the sales results of more than twenty units.
. Reical Decca announced MIRANS in 1989, which
was decided to be equipped on six high-speed ferry
. Nor Control concluded the sales assistance agree-
ment with Taiyo Electric Co., Ltd. and BRIDGE LINE was decided to be equipped on ten container ships in 1997, which was the first deal in the Japanese m arket.
. Kelvin Hughs announced MINAS 9000 in Sea Japan
96 in Japan, which was decided to be equipped on three oil tankers and four container ships.
. Raytheon Anschutz announced BRIDGE CONTROL
3000 in Sea Japan 96 in Japan.
. Tokimec Inc. announced a IBS as a first manufac-
turer in Japan. makers, which is called SEAVANS. It has been equipped on six ships such as training ships and research ships and more than ten marchant ships.
. Furuno Electric Co., Ltd. developed BOYAGER
jointly with Furuno Denmark as and announced it in 1996. ]]le first product is expected to be equipped on a shuttle tanker for Norwegian owner.
Japan Radio Co., Ltd. (JRC) announced IBS- 1000 combined with the ultra-high-sensitive night vision and the integrated radio communication system in Sea Japan 96. The ECDIS has been delivered for three ships .
Japan Radio Co., Ltd. (JRC) announced IBS- 1000 combined with the ultra-high-sensitive night vision and the integrated radio communication system in Sea Japan 96. The ECDIS has been delivered for three ships ."Cock Pit System for domestic modernized ship'' combined with JRC's radar, Yokogawa Electronics Equipment Co.'s gyro pilot and Uzushio Electric Co.'s console was announced in October 1993.
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. developed ''Do-mestic ship voyage assistance system" jointly with the Ship Research Institute of the Ministry for Trans-port and the Japan Domestic Tanker Shipping Asso-ciation, and received the order for two ships. The voice communication technique is adopted in this system for steering command and information acqui-sltlon.
Furuno Electric Co., Ltd. and Yokogawa Denshikiki Co., Ltd.jointly developed "ROOT MASTER" and "NAVI-MATE" for the domestic ship and announced them in 1995. They were equipped on two ships.
12.1.3 Voyage Support System
JRC commerciallized the new type of automatic collision avoidance system jointly with the Ship Re-search Institute of the Ministry for rf\ranSport. This system informs operators of approach of a ship which may possibly collide with and the necessary informa-tion for navigation by voice synthesis, and displays the collision dangerous area on its radar screen.
12.2 Network ''Windows''
In the marine computer system, the network"Win-dows" becomes close to us by popularization of exclu-sively use LSIs for high-speed network control and highly advanced OS. Consequently it becomes more easily to realize nowadays that the improvement of reliability due to redundancy and distributed process-ing of the system, improvement of operability for real time processing, enhancement and integration of the contro1 system and unification of the data base on land.
The fo11owing shows exampIes.
( 1) KEI System Co., Ltd. developed and delivered the
( 1) KEI System Co., Ltd. developed and delivered the "Vessel wide monitoring & control system" which can monitor and control the engine and cargo related plants from any graphic terminal of nine units and also the "Deck integrated contro1 sys-tem" in which five graphic terminals are con-nected.
(2) Monitor and control system UMS-50 made by
Uzushio Electric Co., Ltd. is featured by preparing the joy stick type pointing device and developing the software on the base of"Windows".
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Annual Review 125
Nippon Hakuyo Electronics, Ltd. developed the digital automatic telephone exchange OAE-8000 se-ries to cope with the recent multi media and it was adopted on patrol ships, observation ships and research ships. By connecting the above telephone exchanger with the outer lines to such as INMARSAT B or M, the operator on ship can communicate with and exchange data with as same manner as in the office on land.
13. Electrical Equipment and System
Characteristics of the marine electric field in FY 1996 are that a large-sized electric propulsion system,high tension power supply system,large-sized stabi-lizer and the like using the latest power electronics have been manufactured and installed as a practical device and their performances have been demonstrated.
This advanced technology is the results of steady research and development by the research organiza-tions related to ship and marine, shipyards, marine equipment makers and the like and these are expected to contribute greatly to the future development in the ship and marine field.
13.2 Power Supply and Power Field
( 1) Large-sized ocean research and observation ship
( 1) Large-sized ocean research and observation ship "Mirai" is underconstruction by altering the nuclear ship "Mutsu" for the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center after end of mission. Since control of operating speed in the wide range is required for the purpose of research and observa-tion, it is planned that the diesel propulsion system and the electric propulsion system are installed in parallel.
The outline of the propu1sion system and onboard power supply installation is shown in Fig. 13. 1.4-engine and 2-shaft diesel propulsion system and 2-engine and 2-shaft electric propu1sion system are installed on this ship and the diesel engines drive the propeIlers via clutch ( 1) and (2) and the reduction gears. Two dieseI engines at the center can directly couple with the shaft generator by clutch (3), and are used for operation of the shaft genera to r.
The propu1sion motors are built in the intermedi-ate shaft and when the electric propu1sion system is operated, the motors are decoupled from the rcduction gears and diesel engines by the clutch (I).
In the normal voyage the combined four nlain diesel engines and controllable pitch propellers are used. When research and observation are performed, the eIectric propulsion system and the propellers of fixed pitch are mainly used for opera-tion to reduce cavitation noise of the propellers.
October 1997 (59)
126 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
Steering control is made by the joy sticks in the fore wheel house and the aft wheel house and it is planned that automatic steering including the elec-tric propulsion and thruster can be made.
Several systems are available in variable speed system being adopted in the electric propulsion,but on this ship the voltage/frequency control system of the brushless motor by converter -inverter (thyristor motor contro1 system) was used.The thyristor motor contro1 on this ship was planned to be in the operation range of 20 - 90min-l but stable operation was confirmed even in lOmin-[ by adopting the special feedback circuit to lower the minimum operating speed.
As for the electric propulsion system the power generation plant with electric propulsion mode was installed on the training ship "Hiroshima Maru" for Hiroshima Mercantile Marine College.
13.3 Applied Electricity-Other Fields
( 1) A variety of special electrical equipment was
adopted on the Mirai". Some of them are intro-duced .
Large-sized stabilizer: This is a stabilizer of transister inverter control reducing rolling to deal with research and observation in the waves and capable of reducing a half of rolling on the sea area of sea state 5.
Doppler radar: This is a large-sized radar observ-ing the atmospheric layer by using Doppler shift of radar wave.
(2) As a new type data logger Terasaki Electric Co.,
Ltd. commercialized WE 300 adopting TFT co1or liquid crystal display and optical touch panel.Although the body is miniaturized, it is configured by the system of high expansibility.
1) H. Itaya, "Electric Propulsion System for Large-
sized Ocean Research and Observation Ship Mirai",Symposium of M.E.S.J. 1997
2) Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy industries Co., Ltd.,
Catalog of "Hybrid Anti-Ro1ling System"
3) Terasaki Electric Co., Ltd., Catalog of "WE300"
14. 0cean Machinery and
14.l Trend of Each Field
14.1.1 Offshore Oil Development
The demand is rising for offshore structures re-garding oil such as mobile offshore drilling rig consid-
ered to be equal to 3 vessels of VLCC, or such as FPSO (Floating production storage and offloading vessels),and so on. The demand for offshore drilling rig is expected for new type of deep sea service about lOOO m or more, and about 80 vessels of EPSO are expected to be built for 10 years from now. Hitachi Zosen Co. has received an order of a semisubmersible drilling rig which is intended for service at depth of water 1500 m and has twin derricks of new ram-type, and as results drilling efficiency was improved about 207c by them,and further DPS is adopted completely. The other hands, Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries takes measures to receive an order to drilling a deeper oi1 field by the compIetion of design of offshore drilling rig at deep water of 300O m. FPSO has more denlands than offshore drilling units, there are nlany inquiry for them from North Sea, Off Chinese., Off Canadian projects,etc. Ibere is a forecast such that it is necessary to mark the development on the offshore fields by the fact of lin-1itation of ships market.
14.1.2 Ocean Energy Development
The research and developments of offshore float-ing wave power device named as "Mighty \Vhale" are being conducted. These system make the sea area after these systems to calm by absorbing wave energy, and consequently become use1ti1 for effective utilization of coasting area and for culture fishery. The experimental systems of actual size is scheduled to be constructed and moored off Gokasho-bay, Mie Pref. till the end of the current year, and after that, the experiments at the actual area are planned to establish safety, endurance and economical property of the systems and to utilize them.
14.1.3 Development of Marine Creature Resources
In succession from last year, Kawasaki Heavy Ind.built 3 sets of large scale fishing bank of f]oating type for Okinawa Pref. This fishing bank is constituted with the floating structure of sea surface, the artificial sea bed at water depth of 9 m and the column linking them,and the t]oating surface structure of 7m diameter is equipped with the global positioning system (GPS),navigation aids and solar cell panels. The main structure of this fishing bank is moored by one point catenary of mooring line having special construction combined with wire and chain at the sea area with 1 000m - 1 400 m water depth.
Offshore artificial sea bed for JAMSTEC (Japan Marine Science and Techno1ogy Center) is the facility for fishery farming which the octagonal shelf structure of steel frame is to submerge at water depth of 7 m generally, intended for breeding of fish and shellfishes such as an abalone, the proof experiments are planned
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AnnuaI Review 127
for farming and performing of the facility itself.
14.1.4 Development of Marine Bio-Techno1ogy
The research and development of bio-techno1ogy resource utilization by breeding deposits on the deep sea bottom or microbes living under the environments,such as hydrothermal ventores, different from land is being advanced.
14.1.5 Utilization of Marine Space
The ultra large scale of offshore structure, so called as "MEGA FLOAT PROJECT", makes the special feature of this field. The current year is the final year of research project, and it is scheduled to verify and complete the program by proof experiment, to conduct each proof test at the actual sea area, to verify the efficiency of experimental connection of floating units, and to complete the total technical matter finally.MEGA FLOAT is expected for air ports, helicopter ports, etc., as the traffic base, for a disposal facility of waste, a sewage plant, a bridge, a office building, etc.,as the base of cities, for an electric power station, a crude oil or LNG stockpi ling base, etc., as an energy facility, for a fishing base, a facility of fishery farming,etc., as a fishery facility, and for a leisure or sightseeing facility, etc.
On the other hand, a multi-purpose rescue plant providing measures to dea[ with natural calamities are presented. rILe basic concept of this plant is t0 be useful as the perfect independent unit which is equipped with varjous radio communication equipment, a facility for helicopter access, first aids medical facilities, fire fight-ing equipment, sea water desalination equipment, gar-bage incinerating and electric generating equipment,gas-turbine generating equipment, auxiliary generat-ing equipment,living facility,large scaled public bath,poo1, etc.
14.1.6 Ocean Observation
A unmanned searching vehicle "KAIKOU" of lO,OOOm water depth class is active in various fields.On the other hand, Tokyo University and Mitsui Engi-neering & Shipbuilding developed an autonomous un-manned underwater robot "R-one" jointly which at-tracted a great deal of attention. This robot is useful at
water depth of 400m, and able to navigate for 24 hours by use of closed cycle diesel engine, equipped with an obstacle avoid function and introduced the inertia navi-gation method by sound signal.
A large ocean observation and research ship "MIRAI" is equipped with various high quality and accuracy observation systenls, planned ocean observa-tion for long term on a global scale. Further, this ship has the high grade function by introducing the anti-rolling device to observe at high latitude sea area,where few observation data was gotten from for the reason of severe sea condition and weather, and provide the dep1oyment function of ocean obsewation buoys,and is scheduled to be completed at this autumn.
14.2 Building Records
BuiIding records of offshore equipment in I996 are shown in Table 14. 1. Records is summarized by information from the 0cean Machinery Committee members.
LPG FSO made of steel for Chevron Nigeria is the first facility in the world to export the petroleum gas, by LPG from, produccd from Escravos Oil Wel1 off Nige-ria LPG liquefied at the land facility is transported by the pipe lines at the bottom of the sea under condition of normal temperature and high pressure to FSO, cooled down on board and stored at normal pressure. The storage tank is of IHI SPB type.
Further, the introduce oflarge scale fishing bank of t]oating type is planned prosperously, accordingly the increase of fishery haul is expected by the swarm of fishes, thrming of abaIone, etc.
14.3 Order Record and Future Prospect
Order records of offshore equipment in 1996 are shown in Table 14.2. Records is summarized by infor-mation from the 0cean Machinery Committee mem-bers.
In 1997, the demand of offshore structures in field of offshore oil developnlents is increasing, it is ex-pccted to grow in future.
In the field of utilization of ocean space, the experiment of MEGA FLOAT PROJECT is finishing in this year, it is expected actual uItra large scale of offshore structure to put into practice in near future.
October 1997 (6 1 )
128 Marine Engineering Progress in 1996
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